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The Presidio 

San Francisco 5 ™** 

(Filed unct-cr Golden Gcetc, A/ ft A ") 

San Francisco 
National Park Service 
Western Regional Office 



Photographs, drawings, sketches, prints, plans 
and historical descriptive data bearing on the 
physical features of the buildings thereof as they 
appeared under Spanish and Mexican rule, 177&-1S46. 

Wm. Howard Knowles, 
Project Supervisor, 





The Founding of the Presidio of San Francisco, by 
Russell C. Ewing, edited by Vernon Aubrey Neasham. .,.2 


1. The Presidio of San Francisco (four page 

descriptive report). ...31 

2. "Army's Finest Club Building— Restoration 

of the Officers' Club at the Presidio of 
San Francisco." by Captain B. L. Meeden, 
November-December , 193^ • ...36 


Sal, Commandante , translated by Mother Dolores Sarre, 
San Francisco College for Women. ...47 

D. "American Guide", Federal Writers' Project, W.P.A., 
research material. 

1. San Francisco Presidio. ...50 

2. San Francisco and Presidio. ...S3 

E. Federal Writers* Project, W.P.A., San Francisco Head- 
quarters research data. 

1. Excerpt from report on Presidio. ...60 





1. BANCROFT, HUBERT HOWE — History of Cali- 
fornia. ..,62 

1 ± 


2. BATES, D. B., MRS. — Incidents on land and 

water, or four years on the Pacific 
Coast. ...72 

3. BEECHY, F. W., CAPT., R. S. — Narrative of 

a voyage to the Pacific and Behring's 
Strait. ...73 

4. CAPRON, E. S. — History of California; from 

its discovery to the present time. ...7k 

5. DANA, R. H. , JR. — Two years before the 

maBt and twenty-four years after. ...76 

6. DAVIDSON, GEORGE — The discovery of San 

Francisco Bay. ...77 

7* DAVIS, WILLIAM HEATH —* Seventy-five years 

in California. ...79 

6. DUHAUT-CILLY, A. — Voyage autour du monde, 
principalement a la Californie et aux 
lies Sandwich, pendant les annees 
1626, 1627, 1626, et 1629. ...80 

9. DWINELLE, JOHN WHIPPLE — The colonial his- 

_toxy of the city of San Francisco. ...81 

10. ELDRIDGE, ZOETH SKINNER — The beginnings of 

San Francisco from the expedition of 
Anza, 177k, to the city charter of 
April- 15, 1S50. ...82 

11. ELDRIDGE, ZOETH SKINNER -- History of Cali- 

fornia. ...83 

12. ELLIOTT, GEORGE H. — - The presidio of San 

Francisco. ...8k 


Francisco or Mission Dolores. ...85 

missions and missionaries of Cali- 
fornia. ...88 

15. FCRBES, A. S. C., MRS. — California missions 

and landmarks. ...89 

16. GIFFEN, HELEN — Presidios of Spanish Cali- 






17. GUINN, JAMES MILLER — History of the 

State of California. ....91 


California. ....92 

19. HOOVER, MILDRED BROOKE — Historic spots 

in California. ....95 

20. LANGSDORFF, G. H., VON — Voyages and 

travels in various parts of the world 
during the years ISO3-IS07. ....97 


San Francisco, (author not given) ....99 

22. UAHR, AUGUST C. — The visit of the "Ruxik" 

to San Francisco in 1S16. ...100 

23. MENZIES, ARCHIBALD — Menzies' California 

Journal. ...101 

24. PALOU, FRAY FRANCISCO — Life of the Ven- 

erable Padre Fray Junipero Serra. ...103 

25. PURDY, HELEN THROQP — San Francisco. ...101* 


voyage to Nueva California in 1S06. ..105 

27. RICHMAN, IRVING BERDINE — California un- 

der Spain and Mexico. ...109 

22. RIDER, FREMONT — Rider's California. ...110 

29. ROQUEFEUIL, M. CAMILLE D. — A voyage 

round the world. ...116 


and Californians. ...117 


JAMES — The annals of San Francisco 118 

32. STODDARD, CHARLES WARREN — In the foot- 

prints of the padres. ...119 

33. VANCOUVER, GEORGE, CAPT. — San Francisco 

in 1732. ...120 

34. WILKES, CHARLES, COMDR., U.S.N. — Narra- 

tive of the United States exploring 
expedition. ...123 

35. YOUNG, JOHN P. — San Francisco. ...121* 







1792. Drawn by Hermenegildo Sal, Comandante; with 
accompanying explanatory sheet. (Bancroft Library) ...127 

by Zoeth S. Eldridge, 190S, from a tracing of Prof. 

George Davidson, certified by General H. G. Valle jo.... 12? 

0. PLAN OF PRESIDIO, 1792. Drawn and modified by Hubert 
Howe Bancroft. ...130 

D* PLAN OF PRESIDIO. Apparently based on Sal’s map of 
1792, but modified, and included in Dr. Neasham's 
monograph on Presidio, following Page 24. (See 
Part I-A) ...131 


based on Bancroft. From Historical Section, Thirtieth 
Infantry, Presidio. ...132 


1851. Issued by War Department,. I670. ...133 


Quartermaster. (September 1928) ...134 




A, EL PRESIDIO DE SAN FRAKCISOO. Earliest known draw- 
ing — date undetermined. Original drawing by unknown 
artist. From "Langsdorff 's narrative of the Reza^ 

nov voyage to Nueva California in 1206". ...137 


L* Choris. ...138 

0. WOODCUT OF PRESIDIO, IS52. Soule'* s "Annals of San 

Francisco". ...139 

D« VIEW OF THE PRESIDIO, IS5S. Woodcut reproduction 
from a photograph by Hamilton & Company. From 
"Hutching's California Magazine", p. 536, v. Ill, 

No. 12, June, 1S59« 




E. PHOTOGRAPH OF PRESIDIO, (in distance) from Russian 

Hill, about 1860. ...U 4 I 

F, PHOTOGRAPH OF PRESIDIO, from Presidio Heights, about 

i 860 . ...ll |2 

0. PHOTOGRAPH CF COMANDANCIA (Officers* Club), before 

1868. (Building in background.);3 

H. IHOTQGRAFH OF COMANDANCIA, 1868 (Left background.) ...11*1; 

tant, thenj Catholic now.) ...ll*J> 


E. FH0T0C21AFH OF COMANDANCIA 1931; to 1937. ...lltf 

L. SKETCH OF PRESIDIO, date unknown, from Society of 

California Pioneers ...ll ;8 

H. SKETCH OF PRESIDIO, date unknown, from Society of 

California Pioneers ...11$ 

N. SKETCH OF PRESIDIO, l81;6 ...150 











DEPARTMENT, May 10, 185U. ...167 


OF MILITARX POSTS. Surgeon-General's Office, 1870. ...171 






Commanded by Major General John M. Schofield, 1871. ...176 


IN THE TEAR 1871. Quartermaster General's Office, 1872. ...178 


Commanded by Major General John M. Schofield, 1871. 

OF THE UNITED STATES, Inspector General R.B. Marcy, 

1872 . 



Office, 1875. 



IN THE UNITED STATES AND ALASKA, Quartermaster-General's 

Office, 190U. ...19U 


THE ARMY AT THE GOLDEN GATE, Manuscript prepared by the Works 

Projects Administration, 19 ^ 0 . ...201 




















3. FCRT FUNSTON ...28? 

4. FCRT BAKER ...289 

5. FCRT BARRI ...290 


7. FORT MILEX ...290 


9. FORT MASON ...293 

10. fort mcdowell ...298 


12. HAMILTON FIELD ...302 

13. MOFFETT FIELD ...304 

0. APPENDICES ...308 

1. Mil it ary Chronology of the Bay Region ...309 

2, Bibliography ...318 





by John Martini ...337 




The Presidio of San Francisco, an active army post now entering 
its third historic century, is also in its entirety a part of Golden 
-Gate National Recreation Area, although most of the Presidio is still 
administered by the Department of the Army and only some fringe 
areas have come under administration of the Department of the Interior 
through the National Park Service. 

The Presidio of San Francisco is also one of the most historic 
properties in the San Francisco area and in northern California, 
dating as a military post from 1776 and having continued in that 
role tinder Spanish, Mexican and American governments. It is a 
Registered National Historic Landmark and includes buildings which 
date back as far as 1857 and fragments of adobe wall within the 
much modified Officers 1 Club which date back at least as far as the 
Mexican period during the 1820s and perhaps to the Spanish period 
even earlier. The Presidio contains some of the oldest buildings in 
San Francisco, nearly all of the mid-19th Century buildings of historical 
or architectural significance elsewhere in the city having been des- 
troyed by the earthquake and fire of April, 1906$ although the earthquake 
damaged many Presidio buildings , the fire did not touch it. Thus at 
the beginning of its third century the Presidio still contains an 1857 
post hospital, a row of 1862 officers’ quarters remodeled in 1878, 
an 1861$ magazine, barracks dating from the 1880s, and many other 
historic batteries, buildings and structures. 

This compilation of manuscripts, extracts from books and documents, 
illustrations and maps dealing with various aspects of the history of 
the Presidio of San Francisco is a result of two concerns. First, at 
a time when planning pertaining to Golden Gate National Recreation Area 
was focusing increased attention on the history of its component lands 
including the Presidio, there was little readily available information 
on Presidio history to guide planners, managers, and park interpreters, 
and a Historic Resources Study then in preparation would not deal with 
many aspects of Presidio history beyond structural history. Second, 
the National Park Service had one brittle, yellowing and badly "dog-eared" 
carbon copy of an old manuscript prepared by the Historic American 
Buildings Survey which merited wider distribution within the National 
Park Service to insure its preservation, as in the past material of this 
sort has occasionally been lost or destroyed in one of many periodic 
"housecleanings" of government files and libraries, a practice which in 
a few extreme instances has necessitated duplication of work already 
accomplished. The inclusion of the entire Presidio in the new recreation 
area in 1972 rendered this need particularly acute. A decision was 
made in 1975 in the Division of Historic Preservation of the Western 
Regional Office. National Park Service, to reproduce by xerox and 

distribute a small number of copies of the HABS study to meet the 
need for information and insure preservation of the information. 

The HABS study dealt only with the original Spanish-Mexican 
Presidio, nearly ignoring, except for one or two almost accidental 
inclusions, anything pertaining to Presidio history during the American 
period. It seemed, therefore, worthwhile to include such data as 
came readily to hand regarding this later period. Thus to the original 
HABS stucfcr was added a brief section drawn from, published but scarce 
official army reports describing the Presidio in the period 185k to 
190k (Part VI). A comparison of the various descriptions and maps in 
this section will provide the reader with some idea of the extent and 
form of Presidio growth during this era. 

At that time it was discovered that the Presidio Army Museum 
possessed an even more fragile 12li-page tissue carbon copy of a 
manuscript compiled about 19U0 by the writers’ Program of the WPA 
entitled "The Army at the Golden Gate" . This seemed a worthy addition, 
although mijsing a section listing commanding generals and units, and 
became Part VII. A brief six-page chapter extracted from the 1965 
book Old Forts of the Far West was added, with permission of its author. 
Colonel Harbert M. Hart, U ,3 . Marine. Corps,, and became Part VIII. 

-A brief listing of coastal defense .artillery emplacements in Golden 
Gate National Recreation Area (including some in Karin County but not 
all of those in the Presidio), which had been prepared by Park Technician 
John Martini of Golden Gate National Recreation Area for interpretive 
“ purposes, was added to become Part IX. Finally, an up-to-date listing 
of Presidio commanders during its two hundred years of history was added 
as Part X. The original Table of Contents of the HABS study was expanded 
to include these additional five sections of material, and the entire 
compilation was numbered in sequence with a mechanical stamp, a process 
. which had not even been applied to the original HASS study. (Consequently 
the pages throughout contain two numbers— a number assigned as part of 
the original document, and the number assigned this compilation). Then 
the enlarged Table of Contents was keyed to the new page numbers so that 
it might also serve as a very general index to the contents, which also 
had not been done in the original HABS study. 

It is believed that even upon completion of the Historic Resources 
Study of the military lands in Golden Gate National Recreation Area this 
compilation will have a continued utility in the park, containing some 
details not included and touching on some areas of history not covered 
by that study. 

Gordon Chappell 
Regional Historian, Western Region 
National Park Service 
September 17, 1976 



Edited by Vernon Aubrey ITeaebam 


Registered Landmark #79 

Russell C. Evring 


State of California, Department of natural Resources 
Division of Parks 

Berkeley, 193^ 

Written under auspices of Works Progress Administration 
District #3," Project #65-3-7218, Symbol #1873 


The presidio was one of the major institutions 
established by Swain in the New World. The word itself is 
derived from the Latin p raesidiura . meaning, in one sense, an 
armed garrison. This, institution clayed an important part 
in Roman frontier policy. Under the empire every signifi- 
cant frontier had its praesidium. It marked the line between 
Roman and non-Roman lands. Behind lay the subjugated; in front, 
the barbarian and foreigner. During threats of foreign 
invasions, the Roman garrison was called uoon to protect 
Roman domains. When such threats were removed and a given 
frontier became pacified, the praesidium was moved farther on 
into unconouered regions. It was this system, one o'f the 
many Roman legacies left to Spain by Rome, that was put into 
effective use in the New World. ^ 

The Spanish thrust northward from Nexico City after 
the fall of Aztec power was assisted in no small measure by 
the chain of presidios established along the frontier. Six- 
teenth-century Spanish extension’ into the Chichimec country 2 ■ 

1. For a comparative study of the presidio and the praesidium, 
see Blackmar, Spanish institutions of the Southwest . 192-l° 1 t-. 

2. Chichimec was s name applied to the Indians living immedi- 
ately north of Nexico City. 



owed a great deal of its success to those garrisons. The 
more hostile an are?., the more nresidios there were. To 
hold the Indian in check and to aid the missionary in the 
soreading of European civilization were the nrincipcl mo- 
tives for presidio-founding in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Each mission had its allotment of soldiers, usu- 
ally three, which were supplied by the nearest presidio. The 
soldier was expected to maintain order at the mission, to 
protect the missionary from Indian attacks, and to accompany 
the religious on their tours of inspection and administration 

* -2 . h 

at rancheriasy and visitas . In times of native disturbances 
and uprisings, the entire body of soldiers at one or more 
presidios might be called upon to restore order. Had it not 
'been for the presidial system, the story of Spanish conquest 
and colonization might have been appreciably different. It 
would be difficult to estimate the extra loss of life and 
property which would have attended Spanish advance into the 
Indian country without the support of the presidio. 

Strategic sites were chosen for the presidios, and 
an effort was always made to found the garrisons near an ade- 
quate supply of rater and pasturage. Grazing lands were an 
essential factor in determining the location of a Spanish 

3* Rancherias are Indian settlements. 

4. Visitas were specified places visited -oeriodically by the 
missionary to administer to the Indian. 

frontier fort. The soldier early learned the value of the 
horse in Indian campaigns, and few were the presidios that 
were not within reasonable distance of pasturage. A com- 
manding hill or table-land might mark the site of the mili- 
tary post, while close by would be grass lands, and fresh 
water would be available. 

At times the military posts were nothing more than 
unfortified camps without permanent Quarters for the troops. 
If, however, there was reason to believe that an area demanded 
a permanent garrison because of the characteristically 
bellicose nature of the aborigines, the viceroy at ICexico 
City, with the assistance of other government functionaries, 
would decree the erection of fortifications and buildings to 
'house the soldiers. Plans, usually drawn -up by the adelan- 
tado or frontier governor, would then be submitted to the 
viceroy's officials for approval. 

Economy and utility were the common guiding factors 
in the construction of the presidio. Building materials were 
those that the surrounding country afforded. Lack of stone 
celled for the use of clay or adobe; scarcity of hard and 
durable woods was supplemented with other fibrous plants; 
while metals rarely found a place in presidial architecture. 

The general scheme was to build those establish- 
ments along rectangular lines. A site once chosen, a large 
ouadrangle, with sides varying from two to six hundred feet 

in length, was marked, out. Upon this, walls of stone or 

adobe were build. The walls seldom exceeded twenty feet in 

~\ ' 

height, and one of the sides provided an entrance into a 
large court or placa. Facing the court and built against 
the walls were the buildings of the presidio. The comman- 
dant’s quarters were usually the largest and most favorably 
situated of the presidial buildings. Extending around the 
remaining sides of the wall and in juxtaposition to one 
another were the remaining structures. The church occupied 
a prominent position among those edifices, as did the ware- 
houses and the barracks. ITo presidio was without its guard- 
house and enlisted men’s charters. 

Such modest establishments were the presidios found 
on all important Spanish- American frontiers. They did not, 
however, confine their activities solely to Indian affairs. 
During the eighteenth century, fear of European encroachment 
upon Spanish territory along the northern salients of Hew ■ 
Spain5 added to the many duties of presidial troops. Towards 
the close of the seventeenth century the activities of La 
Salle and the Pensacola colony pointed out to the Spanish 
authorities the need of strengthening the frontier defense. 
1'ore than a half-century later, French intrusions into Hew 

5. Hew Snain included the territory now known as 1'exico and 
the greater part of southern and western United States. 


• 7 

Kexico aroused apprehension among the viceroyal authori- 
ties,^ and rumors of foreign aggression in the Pacific caused 
no little concern at the court of Madrid. Russia, England, 
and France were all reported as having designs upon Califor- 
nia. 7 Claiming by right of discovery, Spain put forth every 
effort to maintain her North Pacific possessions. To colon- 
ize Upper California and to establish adeouate military de- 
fenses were therefore necessary if Spain were to hold on to a 
vast though little knomarea. 

More than two hundred years elapsed between the 
discovery of Upper California and its settlement. Cabrillo, 
in 15^2, was the first European to sail along its shores. In 
the course of the next sixty years such famous voyagers as 
Drake, Cali, Cermeno, and Vizcaino engaged in California ex- 
ploratory expeditions; but no colonies were then founded, and 
ell left their tasks ignorant of the existence of one of the 
finest harbors in all the world. That discovery occurred in 
1769 , when one of the members of the Portola' expedition viewed 
the bay from the crest of a hill south of San Francisco. 

It was some time, however, before the Spaniards 
realized that they had discovered a new body of water. They 

6 . See Bolton, "French Intrusions Into New Nexico, 17^9-1752," 
in The Pacific Ocean in History . jSQ-b-OJ. 

7 . Bolton, Anza's California Expeditions . I, 26 ; Chaoman, The 
Founding of Spanish California . 7^— 75« 


believed that rhat they had found was merely an estuary of 
San Francisco Bay, or the modem Drake's Bay. Later, when it 
was made known in Mexico City that a new bay had been dis- 
covered, Viceroy Croix promptly ordered the founding of set- 
tlements on its shores to secure it against occupation by 
some hostile power. On November 12, 17?0> Croix gave orders 
for a thorough exploration of the port and the erection of a 
mission on its shores. But Pedro Pages, military commander 
of California, regarded the viceroy's order imoossible of 

fulfillment because of the scarcity of troops to protect the 


mission. Father Junipero Berra, bitterly opposed to most of 
Pages' plans, disagreed with the commander's explanation for 
not carrying out instructions. Fages, however, prevailed 
successfully against the missionary's wishes, and the found- 
ing of the mission and presidio had to wait five more years. 

The city of San Francisco owes its beginnings to 
the tenacity end energy of one of the greatest viceroys of 
ITew Spain — Antonio Maria Bucareli y Urusa. Bucareli came 
into power in September, 1JJ1. During the succeeding two 
years he was concerned, so far as California affairs went, 
primarily with maintaining what had already been established. 
He learned, however, that matters were not all that they 
should have been. Complaints from both the religious and 
civil authorities of California distressed him. Missionary 
and soldiers were seldom on amicable terms with each other. 

Sexra complained of the activities of Rivers and Fages, and 
the two latter directed hitter invectives against the Fran- 
ciscan father. Among the cany other reports Bucareli heard 
concerning Upper California affairs, none gave him greater 
anxiety for the future of that country than the perennial 
lack of adeouate supplies. 

The supply base for California to 177^ was the 
port of San Bias on the western coast of 1-Iexico. At set 
times each year, boats were fitted out to carry the neces- 
sities and comforts of life to the California settlers. But 
inhospitable seas and too elaborate colonial administrative 
machinery often worked to the disadvantage of the Califor- 
nians. To remedy this condition, it was proposed to open 
an overland route from Sonora to Monterey. This project 
was accomplished in 177 ^ hy the remarkable expedition of 
Juan Bautista de Anza, then captain of the presidio of 
Tubac, the first permanent military post in the state of 
Arizona. Anza's journey is one of the great exploratory 
expeditions of all forth American history. As important 
and romantic as that event was, soace does not permit the 
recounting of the story. Stiff ice it to say that Bucareli 
readily grasped the significance of the feat by authorizing 
the establishment of Spanish defenses on the "harbor of 
harbors." He wrote: 

Recognizing the importance of this 

2. Bolton, Anza , V. 259 

matter, I rag convinced that Captain Don 
Juan Bautista de Anza ought to make a 
second entry by way of the Colorado and 
Gila rivers, taking the soldiers neces- 
sary to jruard. . . .to missions of San 
Francisco, ... .and to establish in that 
port certain sign of defense to indicate 
that it belongs to his l*ajesty. 

In Hovember, 1774, orders were given for a second 
Anza expedition to go by the newly-discovered route to Cali- 
fornia. Hot only were colonists to form part of the expedi- 
tion, but domestic animals were to be taken along to insure 
the permanency of a settlement on the shores of San Francisco 
Bay. A sea expedition was also planned by Bucaxeli for ex- 
ploration of the port. This was to be under the command of 
Miguel Manxique, who was to sail from San Bias early in 1775 
with several boats for the -enterprise. 

After his return from California, in 1774, Anza 
hastened to Mexico City to report to Bucareli. The viceroy 
was much pleased with the worlc of the captain, and undertook 
to explain to Anza the plans for another expedition. Anza 
was to recruit thirty persons, all married, and lead them 
and their families to the port of San Francisco. Others 
were to go with them, but only thirty were destined to settle 
San Francisco. 

The frontier captain, anxious to be on his way, 
hurriedly left I'exico City and proceeded to Horcasitas, a 
presidio in Sonora. His journey had carried him through the 
Sinaloa town of Culiacan. There he began to enlifet colonists 

end gather provisions for the enic making trip. The best 
that the region could afford in the way of neople and sup- 
plies found their way into the ranks of the captain. By 
May, Anza and the colonists were ready to begin the long 
march. Proceeding up the west coast, they reached Tubac 
after several unfortunate experiences, not the least serious 
of which were Apache raids upon the horse herds. 

The caravan had by now grown to considerable oro- 
portions. On October 23, 1775> ^hen Anza and the colonists 
took their leave of Tubac, there were 2^0 persons and some 
1,000 head of domestic animals in the expedition. Three 
Franciscan friars from the College of the Cross of Queretaxo 
were among the more distinguished members of the group. Fray 
‘Pedro Font was charged with "taking the latitudes during the 
course of the march, while fathers Francisco Garces and 
Thomas Eixarch were to remain on the Colorado River to 
preach to the Indians. Garces and Eixarch established them- 
selves at the junction of the Colorado and Gila, where they 
faithfully performed missionary duties for several years 
thereafter, Garces receiving a -martyr's crown in 17S1. Font 
became the great diarist of the Anza expedition. Indefatig- 
ably he recorded all the significant events. Possessed of a 
sense of humor, and a keen observer. Font wrote one of the 
most interesting accounts of all early California history. 

It is to his diary that we must turn if we would understand 

Anza*s second journey to California. 9 

Anza's route led north to the Gila, and dorm that 
river to its junction with the Colorado, where the party 
arrived on November 23. Everywhere Anza and the colonists 
were well received. The Yurnas and their chief, Salvador 
Palma, were particularly hospitable, lending valuable assist- 
ance to the Spaniards in their crossing of the Colorado, ' 

From there Anza led the expeditionaires across the Colorado 
Desert, one of the most forbidding places to the traveler 
in the West. On January 177 &> the captain and his cour- 
ageous followers arrived at San Gabriel Mission, near the 
modern Los Angeles. The journey had so far been a success. 
Despite the hardships encountered, only one person had died, — 
a mother in childbirth. But to offset this three children 
were born, and all reached California in good health. The 
story is not cuite so remarkable, however, with respect to 
the stock. Some hundred animals had been lost en route. 

At San Gabriel, Anza was detained for a time be- 
cause of an Indian uprising at San Diego. The outbreak was 
unfortunate for the colonists. The commandant of the nre- 
sidio of Monterey, Fernando de Rivera y IConcada, now. refused 
to cooperate with Ansa in the founding of 3?n Francisco. 

Giving as an excuse the lack of troops, Rivera held aloof 

9. See Bolton, Anza . IV. 

from Ansa end his project. But Anza res not the sort of 
person to permit petty bickerings to divert him from his 
main purpose. He therefore proceeded to Monterey, arriving 
Kerch 10. 

Kerch 23 found Ansa, Mora go. Font and several sol- 
diers continuing their march up the coast. Four days later, 
they canned on the shores of Mountain Lake, the same body of 
rater thet nor lies at the north end of Twelfth Avenue, in 
San Francisco, within the presidio reservation. The follow- 
ing day, March 23, the party moved north to the vicinity of 
present-day Fort Point. Font has left a rather detailed 
description of that day’s events: ^ 

March 23, The commander decided to 

erect the Holy Cross on the extremity of 
—the -white -cliff -at the inner point of 
the entrance of the port, and at eight 
o’clock in the morning re rent thither. 

Ascending a small hill, re at once en- 
tered upon a very bare mesa of great 
extent, smooth, and inclining a little 
toward the port. It must be about half 
a league ride and somewhat longer, and it 
keens getting narrower until it ends right 
at the white cliff. This mesa affords a 
delightful view. Indeed, from it one can 
see a large wart of the harbor, its is- 
lands, the mouth of the wort, and the sea 
as far as the eye can, even beyond 
the Farallones. The commander selected 
thie mesa as the site of the new settle- 
ment and fort which was to be established 
at this wort, for, being elevated, it is 
so commanding that from it the entrance 

10. Bolton, Anza , IV, 257-259 

to the mouth of the port can be defended 
with musket shots. And at the distance of 
a musket shot it has water for the sunnly 
of the oeople , namely, the soring or lake 
where we halted.... 

From this point the commander decided 
to go to examine the hills which extend 
toward the interior of the harbor.... to 
see if in their vicinity there were good 
advantages for the convenience of the new 
settlement.... About five o'clock in the 
afternoon the commander and lieutenant 
lloraga returned from their exoloration 
very well pleased, for in the vicinity of 
these hills they had found more than they 
had expected. Their extent must be some 
three leagues. On them and in their 
canyons they found a great quantity of 
timber and firewood, plentiful rater in 
several springs or lakes, abundant land 
for raising crops, and finally, a vast 
supply of pasturage in all the country, 
so that the new settlement may have 
plentiful fuel, water, and grass or pas- 
turage for the horses, ell near by. 

The only thing that is lacking is tira- 
•“‘ber ' for 'large buildings, -although for 
cabins and barracks and for the stockade 
of the presidio there are plenty of trees 
in the groves. And with a little trouble 
they can have all the timber which they 
may wish, for from a point some six 
leagues on the other side of the arroyo 
of San Joseoh Cupertino, as far as some 
three leagues this side of the a.rroyo of 
Sen Francisco, there runs a plain about 
fifty leagues long which they call the 
Llano de Las Robles, because it is very 
thickly grown with oaks of all sizes, and 
from which very good timber may be obtained. 

Anza made no attempt at that time to found a set- 
tlement. After the survey of the region in. the vicinity of 
the modern presidio of San Francisco, he and his party pro- 
ceeded around the bay, through nresent-day Oakland and 
Eerkelev to the San Joapuin River. There the Spaniards de- 

cided to turn back, and a few days later they were again at 
Monterey. Anza himself soon returned to Mexico, leaving the 
actual foundation of the presidio of 3an Francisco to his 

Bucereli displayed much displeasure when he learned 
that no settlement had been made at 3an Francisco. The re- 
sponsibility for the delay he pieced upon the shoulders of 
Rivera, who affected more concern over the safety of San 
Diego than the establishment of a military post on the shores 
of the great northern bay.H Eucareli wrote letters to both 
Rivera end Anza stating that they had acted improperly in not 
founding a colony at San Francisco. 12 

Meanwhile, however, Rivera, as was characteristic 
-of —the ...can, ..had ..changed -his mind, Cn May 8, he ordered Lieu- 
tenant Koraga to San Francisco to erect a fort there. At the 
same time, Rivera commanded Sergeant Pablo Crijalva to lead 
twelve families which Anza had left at San Gabriel to Monte- 
rey and thence to San Francisco, 

Grijalva arrived with the families at Monterey on 
May 28. lloraga lost no time in complying with Rivera’s 
orders, setting the middle of June for starting with the 

11. Chapmen, "The Founding of San Francisco," in The Pscif ic 
Ocean in History , 383 . 

12. Ibid, 324; Eolton, Anza , I , 458. 

colony. The next day, the lieutenant went to Carmelo to re- 
port to Father Serra the order whioh he had reoeived from Ri- 
vera. Serra professed some disgust at the neglect of Rivera 
to make provisions for the founding of missions as well as 
a fart. The Franciscan, however, as president of the Cali- 
fornia missions, named Fathers Francisco Palou and Pedro Be- 
nito Cambon "to go with the expedition. .. .to administer the 
holy sacraments to the people who were going," and "to be 
ready" to take over missionary duties in the event that a 
mission were founded. 

Fortunate it is for historians that so many Cali- 
fornia missionaries were devoted to literary pursuits. Palou, 
like Font and many other religious, was at his best when 
writing about contemporary matters. It is from his pen, sup- 
plemented by a report made by Koraga to the viceroy, that we 
learn about the beginnings of the presidio. As a vital docu- 
ment for those who would know the origins of the modern mili- 
tary reservation at San Francisco, Palou's account of this 
event bears quoting:^ 

On the 17th day of June, 177^ » shout 
two in the afternoon, the company of sol- 
diers and families from Sonora set out from 
Monterey. It was composed of its Commander, 

13, Bolton, Anza, III, 3^7-395 

lieutenant Don Jone Joaquin Moraga, a ser- 
geant, two corporals, and ten soldiers, all 
with their wives and families except the 
Commander, who had left his in 3onora. In 
addition there were seven families of set- 
tlers, rationed and provisioned by the king; 
other persons attached to the soldiers and 
their families; five servant boys, muleteers 
and vaoueroo, who conducted about two hun- 
dred of the king's cattle end some belong- 
ing to the individuals, and the mule train which 
carried the provisions and utensils neces- 
sary for the road. All the foregoing be- 
longed to the new presidio. And for what- 
ever concerned the first mission that was 
to be founded we two ministers, Father Fray 
Pedro Benito Cambon and 1, went with the 
two servants who conducted the loads, and 
three unmarried Indian neophytes, two of 
them from Old California (Lower California), 
and the other from the mission of Caxmelo, 
who dTove the cattle for the mission, num- 
bering eighty-six head, which were incorpor- 
ated with those for the presidio. 

The Officers of the vessels, with their 
pilots wished to accompany the expedition, and 
''they all did so for about half a league. (The 
Princlne and the Ban Carlos had come from 
Mexico with provisions for the California es- 
tablishment. The Ban Carlos was to go from 
Monterey to San Francisco with supplies for 
the colonists.) From this point the captain 
of the Princioe and all the pilots turned 
back; but Don Fernando ruiros continued for 
the first day's march with the two father 
chaplains as far as the Monterey River, where 
the expedition halted and camped. On the fol- 
lowing day., after having watched all the people 
cross the river and seen the line formed on 
the broad plain by all those people, the 
pack trains, cattle, and the horse herd, they 
returned to Monterey after taking farewell in 
the hope that we could soon meet in the port 
of Our Father 3an Francisco. 

The expedition continued by the same 
road which was traveled in the exploration of 
that harbor in the year 177^ (Palou refers to 

an expedition made to San Francisoo Bay 
by Rivera in 1774.) .. ..But the days* 
marches were shorter, in order not to 
fatigue the little children and the women, 
expecially those who were pregnant, and 
for this reason it was even necessary to 
make several stops. On the whole there 
was not a single mishao, thanks to God. 

We were well received by all the heathen 
whom we met on the road, who were sur- 
prised to see so many people of both 
sexes and all ages, for up to that time 
they had not seen more than some few sol- 
diers..,. And they were astonished at the 
cattle which they had never seen before. 

On the 27th day of June the expedi- 
tion arrived in the neighborhood of the 
harbor, and the commander ordered the 
canrp halted on the bank of a lagoon called 
by Senor Anz a tluestra Senora de los Dolores, 
which is in sight of the bay of Los Llorones 
(Mission Bay) and the beach of the bay or 
arm of the sea which runs to the southeast, 
with the intention of waiting here for the 
bark in order to select the spot for the 
founding of the fort and oresidio, and in 
~the 'meantime 'to explore the land. On the 
following day he ordered a shelter of 
branches built to serve as a chapel in 
which to celebrate the holy sacrifice of 
Mass. (The beginning of Mission Dolores.) 

In it the first Mass was said on the 29th, 
the feast of the great, holy aoostle, San 
Pedro and San Pablo, and we continued to 
oelebrate in it every day until the canrp 
was moved to the site which it occuoics 
near the landing place, when the ground 
and the convenience of rater permitted it.... 

For an entire month the expedition 
remained in that camp, which was composed 
of field tents, ’waiting for the bark San 
Carlos . Meanwhile soldiers, citizens, 
and servants emnloyed themselves in cut- 
tings logs in order to have this much done 
when the bnrk should arrive. The lieutenant 
busied himself in exploring the land in the 
vicinity, where he found some springs of 
water, lagoons, pastures, and good sites 
for all kinds of stock-. 

Hear the white cliff (at Fort Point) he 
found two springs of water sufficient for 
the use of the presidio, and not far from 
them he found a good plain (now part of 
Main Post) which is in view of the harbor 
and entrance, and also of its interior. 

As soon as he saw the spot the lieutenant 
decided that it was suitable for the pre- 
sidio but he delayed moving the people 
there, as he was waiting day by day for 
the arrival of the packet. 

Seeing that it did not appear for a 
whole month, and, as they wrote from Monte- 
rey by the pack train which went to bring 
provisions, that it had sailed long ago 
(contrary winds had blown the San Carlos 
as far south as San Diego) , the lieutenant 
decided to move to that spot so that the 
soldiers might begin to build their huts 
for shelter, since it was nearer at hand 
for making a beginning of the houses. 

This he did on the 26th of July, setting 
to work immediately to construct some tule 
huts. The first was the one that was to 
serve as a chapel, and in it I said Mass 
on the 2Sth of the same month.... 

When 'the expedition left Monterey the 
paoket San Carlos remained at anchor loaded 
in that port, while its commander delayed 
sailing until the return of the messenger 
whom he had dispatched to San Diego. 

(The commander of the San Carlos was 
Captain Don Fernando Quiros, His pilots 
were Don Jose Canazares and Don Cristd’bal 
Revilla.) As soon as the courier ar- 
rived the San Carlos sailed from that 
port bound for San Francisco, but im- 
mediately after leaving Monterey it be- 
gan to experience contrary winds, so 
strong that it was driven down to the 
parallel of San Diego, but very far from 
the coast. From that point it went on 
greduqily ascending and gaining altitude 
until ' it. reached forty- two degrees, at 
which latitude it approached the shore 
and then descended as far as Point Reyes. 
There it put in between that point and 
the northern farallones, dropping anchor 
on the north coast in the Gulf of the 
Farallones on the night of the 17th of 

August. On the following day it success- 
fully entered the harbor, and about two 
o'clock in the afternoon it anchored not 
very far from the spot where the soldiers 
were lodged, but not in sight of them, as 
the view was cut off by the point of the 
hill on whose skirts the camp was placed; 
but it was in sight of the white cliff and 
the entrance to the harbor. 

As soon as the bark was mode fast, the 
commander, pilots, and Father Noeedal went 
ashore. When they saw the site of the camp 
they were all of the opinion that it was a 
very suitable place for the fort and pre- 
sidio.... In view of the opinion of the 
captain of the bark and the pilots, work 
was begun on the building of the houses and 
the presidio. A square measuring ninety- 
two vara each way was marked out for it, 
with divisions for church, royal offices, 
warehouses, guardhouses, and houses for 
soldier settlers, a map of the plan being 
formed and drawn by the first pilot. (The 
map has not been found.) 

And so that the work might be done as 
speedily as possible, the commander (rjuiros) 
“’-"tteei-gnrrte-d -a spued of -soldiers and "tire two 
carpenters to join the servants of the royal 
presidio in making a good warehouse in which 
to keep the provisions, a house for the com- 
manding officer of the presidio, and a 
chapel for celebrating the holy sacrifice of 
the Mass, while the soldiers were making 
their own houses for their families.... 

It was then decided that the formal act 
of possession should take place, the day ap- 
pointed for it being that on which our 
Mother Church celebrates the impression of 
the stigmata of Our Seraphic Father San Fran- 
cisco, that is, the 17th of September, a 
most appropriate day, since he is the patron 
of the harbor, the new presidio, and the 
mission. And for taking formal possession 
of the mission the 4 th of October was desig- 
nated, which is the day dedicated to Our 
Seraphic Father San Francisco. The com- 
mander of the packet, his two pilots, end 
the greater part of the orew were present at 
the ceremony of taking formal possession of 

the presidial site, only those who were 
absolutely necessary remaining on board; 
end with the people from the presidio, 
troops as well as citizens, they made up 
a goodly number of Spaniards. There were 
also present four friar priests, all of 
our College San Fernando de Mexico, that 
is, the missionary fathers of this 
mission, Palo'u and Cambdn, the chaplain 
of the bark Kocedal, and father Fray Tomas 
de la Pena, who had come from Monterey to 
examine the site for the second mission, 
of which he had been named minister, 

A solemn Mass was sung by the ministers, 
and when it was concluded the gentlemen 
performed the ceremony of taking formal 
possession. This finished, all entered 
the chapel and sang the Te Deum Laudamus . 
accompanied by peals of bells and re- 
peated salvos of cannon, muskets, and guns, 
whose roar and the sound of the bells 
doubtless terrified the heathen, for they 
did not allow themselves to be seen for 
many days. The ceremony concluded, the 
commander of the presidio (Koraga) in- 
vited to it all the people, conducting him- 
self" with 'all 'the 'splendor that the place 
permitted, and supplying with his true 
kindness what else would have been lack- 
ing, for which all the people were grate- 
ful, expressing their gratitude in the joy 
and happiness which all felt on that day. 

Thus we have Father Palou* s accound of the found- 
ing of the presidio of San Francisco, . With one exception, 
the good father's narration of that historic event leaves 
nothing to be desired. That exception, for our purpose, 
deals with the act of taking formal possession. We know that 
the presidio was formally established on September 17 , 1776, 
that in celebrating the event special religious services were 
held, end that an impressive military oeremony concluded the 
activities of the day. But of what did this aot of taking 

formal possession consist? 

The usual procedure in such matters was first to 
offer up an invocation to the Holy Trinity, whereupon it 
was announced in the name of the Divine Being that posses- 
sion was taken upon the authority of the king of Spain. Then 
the name and title of the commandant were announced. This 
was followed by those present kneeling in adoration of the 
Holy Cross, which was erected in the name of the king; "and 
that by orders of the viceroy of New Spain the Commandante 
( sic) did take possession of this land forevermore for the 
Crown of Castile and Leon, as belonging to it by virtue of 
the ‘Donation (sic) y Bula que el Muy Santa Padre Alexandro 
Sixto Sumo Pontifico Romano,* executed to the *Mui Altos y 
Catolices ( sic ) Senores Don Fernando V y Dona Ysabel su 
Huger, Reyes de Castilla, y Leon,’ at Rome on the 4th of 
May, 1493. In taking possession, the commandant, sword 
in hand, cut grass, bushes, branches and trees, and moved 
stones which were in his way as he walked about. 

Two years passed before any substantial progress 
was made in erecting the presidio. At the end of 177& 811 
adobe house for the commander had been completed, the walls 
of the fort had been raised a few feet, a slaughter house 
had been built of stone, and a church, two warehouses and 

14. Davidson, Discovery of San Francisco Bay . 127. 



quarters for the troops had been made of earth. 15 But this 
work was soon to go for naught. In January of the following 
year, torrential rains destroyed moat of the presidial 
buildings. ^-6 Tiie erosive effects of the driving rain on 
adobe reduced the commandant *o house, the church, the ware- 
houses, the daughter house, and six of the buildings 
Quartering enlisted men to ruins. By the end of the year 
there was not one left of the original edifices. ^7 

Work was again undertaken to reconstruct the pre- 
sidio. It took several years, hovrever, before the garrison 
resembled a real army post. Even in 1792, when Captain 
George Vancouver visited San Francisco during the course of 
his memorable expedition, the presidio was far from being a 
formidable establishment. -Vancouver >kas left a -description 
of the garrison as he saw it: 1 ^ 

We rode up to the presidio, an appel- 
lation given to their military establish- 
ments in tliio country, and signifying a 

safe guard Its wall, which fronted 

the harbor, was visible from the ships; 
but instead of a city or town, whose 
lights we had so anxiously looked for on 
the night of our arrival, we were con- 
• ducted into a spacious verdant plain, 

surrounded by hills on every side, ex- 
cepting that which fronted the port. The" 

15. Gal to Rorseu, San Francisco, Karoh 4, 1792. Provincial 
state papers . ZI , 52. 

16. Ibid. 

17. Ibid . 

IS. G. Vancouver, A voyage of discovery ...., II, 5**7» 


only object which presented itself, was 
a square area, whose sides were about two 
hundred yards in length, enclosed by a 
mud wall, and resembling a pound for cat- 
tle, Above this wall tie thatched roof 3 
of their low small houses just made their 
appearance. On entering the Presidio, we 
found one of its sideo still uninclooed by 
the wall, and very indifferently fenced in 
by a few bushes here and there, fastened to 
stakes in the ground. The unfinished state 
of this part, afforded us an opportunity 
of seeing the strength of the wall, and the 
manner in which it was constructed. It is 
about fourteen feet hip^h, and five in 
breadth, and was first formed by uprights 
end horizontal rafters of large timber, 
between/ which dried sods and moistened 
earth were pressed as close and as hard as 
possible; after which the whole was cased 
with the earth into a sort of mud 
plaster, which gave it the appearance of 
durability, and of being sufficiently strong 
to protect them, with the assistance of 
their firearms, again 3 t all the force which 
the natives of the country might be able 
'to collect. 

The Snanish soldiers comoosing the gar- 
rison amounted, I understood, to thirty- 
five; who, with their wives, families, and 
e few Indian servants, composed the whole 
of the inhabitants. Their houses were along 
the wall, within the souare, and their 
fronts uniformly extended the Ea.ise distance 
into the area, which is a clear open soace, 
without buildings or other interruptions. 

The only entrance into it, is by a large 
gateway; facing which, ' and against the 
centre of the opposite wall or side, is the 
church; which, though small, was neat in 
comparison to the rest of the buildings. 

This projeots further into the square than 
the houses, and is distinguishable from 
the other edifices, by beins white-washed 
with lime made from .sea-shells; as there 
hoe not yet been any lime-stone or cal- 
careous earth discovered in the neighbor- 
hood. On the left of the church, is the 
commandant’s house, consisting, I believe, 
of two roora-s and closet only, vjhich are 

divided by massy walls, similar to that 
which encloses the srunre, and com- 
municating with each other by very small 
doors, between these apartments and the 
outward wall was an excellent poultry 
house and yard, which seemed pretty well 
stocked; and between the roof and ceil- 
ings of the rooms was a kind of lumber 
garret: These were all the conveniences 
the habitation seemed calculated to af- 
ford. The rest of the houses , though 
• smaller, were fashioned exactly after 
the same inanner;/nnd in the winter, or 
rainy seasons must at the best be very 
uncomfortable dwellings. For though 
the walls are a sufficient security against 
the inclemency of the weather, yet the 
windows, which are cut in the front wall, 
and look into the sonars, are destitute 
of glass, or any other defense that does 
not at the same time exclude the light. 

The apartment in the commandant's 
house, into which V7e were ushered, was 
about thirty feet long, fourteen feet 
broad, and twelve feet high; and the 
other room, or chamber, I ..judged to be 
of the same dimensions, excepting in its 
length, which appeared to be somewhat 
less. The floor was of the native soil 
raised about three feet from its orig- 
inal level, without- being boarded, paved, 
or even reduced to an even surface; the 
roof was covered in flags and rushes, 
the walls on the inside had once been 
white-v/eshed; the furniture consisted of 
a very sparing assortment of the most in- 
dispensable articles, ef the rudest 
fashion, -and of the meanest kind; and 
ill accorded with the ideas we had con- 
ceived of the sumptuous maimer in which 
the Spaniards live on this side of the 

Suoh were the beginnings of the presidio of San 
Francisco. Conceived by Spain as a bulwark against the 
designs of hostile European powers, the presidio has had a 
continuous existence as a military post. Colorful and im- 

portent has been its history. Soldiers of three nations 
have been ouertered behind its walls. Spain, Mexico and the 
United States, each in turn, found the presidio of San Fran- 
cisco a valuable military base on the Pnoiflo, and each has 
been indebted to Bucareli, Anza, and Moraga for the excellent 
site upon which it stands. Today only one of the original 
buildings remain as a memorial to the genius of a people who 
conouered more than two-thirds of the Western Hemisphere. 

This structure, hardly recognizable as one of those edifices 
raised by the hands of Moraga end his successors, stands re- 
modeled as a club for officers of the United States Army, 




North Boundary 
East Boundary 
South Boundary 
West B mndary 

116 vara8 
120 varas 
116 varas 
120 Varas 


GUARDIA de PR2VENGI0JT (Sentry Station), 
6£ §? long, 4-j»- varas wide, and 

varas high. 

2. ‘ CUAETEL (Barracks) , 

1-6 'Varan long, 4-^- yarns -wide, and 3^- 
vares high. 

3, 4. CALAB0303 (Prison Cells), 

2 yarns long, 1^- varas wide, and 2 varas 
. high. 

5* ALHACEK de RQPA (Clothing Warehouse) , 

IS varas long, 6 varag wide, and 4g 
varan high. 

6. ALMACEN de VI VERES (Food Warehouse), 

12 yarns long, 6 varas wide, and 4^ 

, yarns high. 

7, 2. CASAS del COHANDANTE (Commander's Quarters), 

37"2 varas long, 6 varas wide, and 4-| 
varas high. 

9. CASA del 3ARGE1TT0 (Sergeant's Quarters), 

(No dimensions given). 

10. IGLESIA (Church), 

19 varas long, 2 varas wide, and 4f 
varan high, 

11. CA.3A RATA (Slaughter Rouse) , (Not specified) . 

a to k. IIABITA0I0NE3 de la TROPA (Enlisted Hen's quarters). 

* A vara is a Spanish unit of measure equal to 2.72 feet. 





NISS. A bibliography of the history of 
California, 1510-1930 3 V * San Fran- 
cisco, 1933. 


2. ELLIOTT, GEORGE H. "The presidio of San Fran- 
cisco,” in Overland monthly . IV. San 
Francisco, April, IS70. 


3. BANCROFT, HUBERT HOWE — History of California. 

7v. San Francisco, 1SS4- 1S90. 

4. BLACKMAR, FRANK WILSON — Spanish institutions 

- vof ' tbs- Southwest . -^Baltimore , -1691* 

5. BOLTON, HERBERT EUGENE — "French intrusions 

into New Mexico, 1749-1752," in The 
Pacific Ocean in history. New York, 1917* 

6. BOLTON, HERBERT EUGENE — Anza‘s California ex- 

peditions. Berkeley, 193°» 

7. BOLTON, HERBERT "EUGENE , ed. Historical memoirs 

of New California by Fray Francisco Palou, 
O.F.M. 4v, ■ (Translated into English from 
the manuscript in the archives of Mexico.) 
Berkeley, 1926. 

g. CHAPMAN, CHARLES EDWARD — . "The founding of San 

Francisco," in The Pacific Ocean in history. 
New York, 1917 

9. CHAPMAN, CHARLES EDWARD — The founding of 

Spanish California, the northwestward expan- 
sion of New Spain, l6g7“17^3» 4ew York, 


10. DAVIDSON, GEORGE — The discovery of San Fran- 

cisco Bay; the rediscovery of the Port 
of Monterey; the establishment of the 
presidio; and the founding of the Mission 
of San Francisco. San Francisco, 1907. 

11. DAVIS, JOHN FRANCIS — The founding of San Fran- 

cisco, presidio and mission. San Fran- 
cisco, 1926. 

12. DWINELLE, JOHN T 7 HIPPLE — The colonial history 

of the city of San Francisco. San Fran- 
cisco, IS63. 

13 . ELDRIDGE, ZOETH SKINNER — The beginnings of 

San Francisco. 2 v. San Francisco, 1912 . 

1M-. VANCOUVER, GEORGE, CAPT. — A voyage of dis- 
covery to the North Pacific Ocean, and 
. round the world; in which the coast of 
northwest America has been carefully ex- 
amined and accurately surveyed. ..... 

3v. and atlas. London, 179S. 



Bancroft Library. 


In the Bancroft Library. 


Records of the Quartermaster Department, Presidio of San Francisco 

The PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO, of vhich Crlssy Field is a part, is one of 
the oldest military reservations in the United States, having been established 
in 1776. It is located within the City limits of San Francisco, which is known 
as the "City of Hills," and has a population of 800,000. A short history of the 
Presidio is herewith given. 

Spain had claimed the Pacific Coast of North America up to forty-two degrees, 
for over two hundred years, but had done nothing to maintain her right by settle- 
ment until Seventeen Sixty-nine, when an expedition under Don Gaspar de Portola 
was sent to take possession of, and fortify the ports of San Diego and Monterey. 
While on this expedition, San Francisco was discovered, and it was then decided to 
fortify it. 

Under the rule of Spain, the administration of California was purely mili- 
tary. The territory was divided into four districts, and Tinder the protection of 
a military post known as a "Presidio." 

The Governor of California was an officer of the Spanish Amy, a Lieutenant- 
Colonel, who held his appointment from the Viceroy of Spain. He executed the 
orders of the Viceroy and was responsible to him only. 

Each presidential district was commanded by a Lieutenant who had full juris- 
diction within his district, subject to the approval of the Governor. (In 
1805, the rank of a Commandante of a Presidio District was raised from Lieutenant 
^tu-Gaptain. ) 

A military reservation of a fort or presidio as laid down by law, was equal 
to a square of three thousand varas, or fifteen hundred sixty-four acres. 

The word "presidio" come3 from the Roman word "presidium" meaning a garrison 
or fortified camp. A presidio was a walled camp about 600 feet square, whose 
walls of adobe were fourteen feet high and five feet thick, with small bastions 
flanking the angles. The walls had but one gate and were surrounded by a ditch 
twelve feet wide and six feet deep. The armament was generally eight bronze 
cannons - eight, twelve, and sixteen-pounders. Not far from the presidio wa s the 
fort or battery called the "Castillo," Within the inclosure of the presidio 
were the church, officers 1 quarters, soldiers' quarters, houses of colonists, 
storehouses, workshops, stables, wells and cisterns. 

The four presidios of California were San Diego, Monterey, San Francisco 
and Santa Barbara, 

On July 1, 1769, San Diego was occupied by Portola and his men, but it did 
not become a regular presidio until seventeen seventy-four. 

On April 21, 1782, the Presidio of Santa Barbara was founded by the order 
of Governor Neve, and placed under Lieutenant Ortega's command. 

On March 28, 1776, Lieutenant Colonel Juan Bautista Anza chose, as the site 
of the Presidio of San Francisco, the place where Fort Point is now situated. 

When he erected the cross there and directed that the fort be built on the 
Point and the Presidio under the shelter of the hill, his act created, under 
the laws of Spain, a military reservation of 3,000 varas or about 1,56U 
acres. After exploring the country thereabouts, Anza left for Monterey, 
thence to return to his home on the far-off frontier. Presidio of Tubac, lo- 
cated in what is now Arizona. Before leaving Monterey, Anza delivered the 
command of the expedition to Lieutenant Jose Moraga. On September 17, 1776, 
Lieutenant Moraga founded the Presidio of San Francisco. He was its first 
commandante, retaining ths position from, the date of its founding until his 
death, nine years later. 

After Moraga' s death. Lieutenant 0on2ales was temporary Commandante for 
a year and a half, and Ensign Sal was acting Commandante until the arrival of 
Lieutenant Jose Dario Arguello, who took command on June 12, 1778. Arguello 
remained in command until March 1, 1806, with occasional duty elsewhere, dur- 
ing which time Ehsign Sal took his place as acting Commandante. 

The walls of the Presidio, begun by Moraga in the winter of 1776, were 
completed on three sides in 1792, but on the fourth or east side was a pali- 
sade supplemented by bushes to cover its appearance. About the beginning of 
the century, the fourth wall was completed to correspond with the others. 

In 1812, an earthquake threw down a large part of the eastern and southern walls 
and almost all of the northern wall. It also ruined the church and a number 
of buildings within the enclosure. The fort proper was built in 179U. It was 
a ^formidable affair of adobe, horseshoe -in shape and* pierced by -fourteen em- 
brasures lined with brick. In the middle of the fort was a barracks for the 
artillerymen. The fort was finished in December, 17 9h, and cost S6,U00.00. 

It was later rebuilt of brick. It was named Castillo de San Joaquin and was 
garrisoned by a corporal and six artillerymen. 

When Arguello was sent to Santa Barbara, in 1806, his son, Don Luis An- 
tonia, reigned as Commandante of San Francisco until his death, March 27, 1830. 
Don Luis was made Captain in 1818, and in 1822, was elected Provision- 
al Governor of California. He served until the arrival of Governor Echendia 
in October, 1825, when he returned to his command at San Francisco. The last 
two years of his life he was only the nominal commander, being relieved from 
active duty by the Governor, During Don Luis' absence at Monterey as Acting 
Governor and after his relief from active duty in 1828, Lieutenant Ignacio 
Martinez acted as Commandante. Martinez served until hi3 retirement in 1831, 
and was succeeded in the command of San Francisco by. Ensign Mariano Guadalupe 
Vallejo. The force belonging to the Presidio had been from fifty-five to sixty 
men. Vallejo was elected a member of the "Diputacion" and, during his ab- 
sence, Alferez Jose Antonio Sanchez acted as Commandante, and after 1833, Alfrez 
Demaso Rodriguez. 

In 1835, Vallejo was made Commandante of the northern frontier and removed 
his company to Sonoma, leaving Alferez Juan Prado Mesa in charge of San Fran- 
cisco with six artillerymen. Later, the regular troops were all withdrawn 
and the Fort and Presidio suffered to fall into decay, one old artilleryman. 
Corporal Joaquin Pera, being left as custodian of Government property. 

Vallejo protested against the Government's neglect, but in vain, and final- 
ly, in 18140, failing to receive troops from Mexico for San Francisco, he sent, 
from his own outfit. Mesa with a Sergeant and twelve privates to the garrison 



at the Presidio, They were there for two, possibly three years, but after 
that, there seon to have been no regular troops at the Presidio, The walls 
were down and the fort was crumbling to ruins. 

On July 9, 18U6, Commander John B. Montgomery raised the United States 
flag in San Francisco, 

The Navy and Marine forces garrisoned the City until March, 18U7, when 
the Stevenson Regiment arrived in California, and Companies "H" and "K n were 
sent to garrison the Presidio of San Francisco under the command of Major 
James A, Hardie. 

When, by order of Colonel Mason, the reservation, for military purposes, 
was laid out in 18U8, the land was claimed by a man by the name of Larkin, 
but his claim was rejected. Shortly afterward, the land was again claimed, 
this time by a man named Wright . As the original reservation was found 
to be larger than necessary, the unneeded portion was returned to Mr. Wright, 
leaving the boundary lines of the Presidio of today the same as those of the 
old Spanish Presidio, with the exception of eighty feet cut off the eastern 
frontage by an act of Congress in 1876 and given to the City of San Francisco 
for a street and some ten acres occupied by the Palace of Fine Arts, the only 
remaining building of the Panama Pacific Exposition, vjhich acreage has been 
deeded to the City and County of San Francisco by Act of Congress in 1928. 

"In November, 18!»9, Captain Keyes of the Third ‘Artillery succeeded -Major 
Hardie in command of the Presidio. During the year, some repairs were made, 
in order to render the Presidio habitable, and four thirty-two pounders and two 
eight-inch howitzers were mounted on the old fort. 

In May, 1851, when General Hitchcock took command of the Third Division, 
he moved Division Headquarters to Benicia, but in 1857, it was returned to 
San Francisco by General Clark and has since remained there. 

In 1853, Lieutenant Colonel Mason was Engineer in charge of the work at 
Fort Point. Mason died and was succeeded by Major J.G. Bernard. The old 
fort was taken down and some of the material used in the new construction. 

The site was cut down to the water edge and a new fort, Winfield Scott, 
succeeded the Castillo de San Joaquin. 

The ancient Presidio is no longer protected by its fourteen-foot adobe 
wall, but its quadrangle is the Parade Ground of the Post. 

The Presidio, during the great fire and earthquake disaster in 1906, was 
commanded by General Frederick Funston, who was in charge of the relief work 
in San Francisco. The Presidio was used as a refuge camp at that time. 

During the World War in 1917-1918, the Presidio was used as a concen- 
tration and training camp for the United States soldiers. 

Crissy Field is a sub-post of the Presidio of San Francisco and is situ- 
ated within the limits of that reservation. It is located along the shore 
of San Francisco Bay at the north boundary of the Presidio. The site for 

Crissy Field was selected by Major Henry H. Arnold, Air Corps, who 
was then Department Air officer of the Western Department, in June, 1919; and 
is what was previously the site of the Panama Pacific exposition. The buildings 
were completed on June 30, 1921, and the first personnel started to move in 
on July 1, 1921. The first plane, however, landed on July 2, 1919, and from 
that time on, airplanes landed and took off occasionally; and on November 3, 
1919, it was named "Crissy Field," in honor of Major Dana H. Crissy, Air 
Service, who was killed in the Transcontinental Air Race on October 8, 1919. 


LINCOLN BOULEVARD - Named after Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President 
of the United States. 

McDOWELL AVENUE - Named after Major General Irvin McDowell, 1*10 
was in command from July 1, I 876 to October 15, 1882. 

WASHINGTON BOULEVARD - Named after George Washington, first President 
of the United States. 

ARGUELLO BOULEVARD - Named after Lieutenant Arguello, an officer of 
the Spanish Army, who commanded the Presidio from June 1787 to March 

JERAGA AVENUE - Named after Lieutenant Koraga, a Spanish Officer, who 
built the original Presidio and commanded it from 1776 to 1785. 

ANZA STREET - Named after Lieutenant Colonel Anza, 1*10 erected a cross 
at Fort Point, on March 28, 1776, selecting it as the future site of 
the Presidio. 

MESA STREET - Named after Alferez Mesa, who commanded the Presidio from 
I8ijl to 181*3. 

MONTGOMERY STREET - Named after Commander J.B. Montgomery, U.S.N., 
who raised the American Flag in San Francisco on July 9, 181*6. 

GRAHAM AVENUE - Named after Brigadier-General William M. Graham, 5th Ar- 
tillery, who commanded the Presidio from 1880 to 1896 . 

FUNSTON AVENUE - Named after Brigadier-General Frederick Funston, who 
was in command from April, 1905, to May, 1905; from February, 1906 to 
March, 1906 and from May, 1907 to August 1908. 

SHERIDAN AVENUE: - Named after Lieutenant-General P.H. Sheridan, who 
was in command from March 1886 to April 1886. 

PRESIDIO BOULEVARD - Named after the Presidio; is the longest street 
in the Presidio. 

MACARTHUR AVENUE - Named after Lieutenant-General Arthur KacArtbur, who was in 
command from 1908 to 1905. 

CRISSI AVENUE - Named after Major Dana H. Crissy, Mr Service, who was killed 
in the Transcontinental Mr Race in 1919. 

PORTOLA STREET - Named after Don C-aspar de Portola, who was in command of the 
land expedition which discovered San Francisco. 

RODRIGUEZ STREET - Named after Damaseo Rodriguez, who was in command of the 
Presidio from 1833 to 1836 . 

HALL EC K STREET - Named after Major General H.W. Halleck, in command of the Pre- 
sidio, 1866 to 1869. 

VALLEJO STREET - Named after Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, who commanded the Presidio 
from 1831 to ‘33. 

HUGER STREET - Named after Brigadier-General TJ3. Ruger, who was in command from 
April 1891 to November l&9h. 

BARNARD AVENUE - Named after Major J.G. Barnard, who rebuilt the old fort of 
-<the- Spanish Presidio, moving -it -and-etarting-the- Fort-'Winfield Scott of today. 

MASON STREET - Named after Lieutenant-Colonel Mason of the Engineers, who was 
in charge of the work at Fort Point in 1853. 

Meeden, B. L., Capt., Q. M. C. — "Army’s 

Finest Club Building Restoration 

of the Officers’ Club at the Pre- 
sidio of San Francisco", in THE 

(With insertion by Capt. Meeden Octo- 
ber 2S, 1937.) 

The restoration of the Officers’ Club at the Presidio 
of San Francisco during the current year brought to fulfil- 
ment a desire cherished by many Commanding Officers since 
the first occupancy of the post by United States troops in 
1S46. The original adobe building was erected in 1776 by 
Spanish explorers under the command of Lieutenant Jose Joaquin 
Moraga. It formed part of a stockade and, together with many 
other buildings, was enclosed by a wall fourteen feet high and 
'five f-eet-wide. -From this -modest - settlement developed San 
Francisco, the beautiful City of the Golden Gate. 

The discovery of the Bay of San Francisco and the site 
upon which the city of that name stands is deserving of men- 
tion. On November 1, 176 9, Sergeant Jose^ Francisco de Ortega, 
in charge of the advance guard of the Monterey expedition, 
set out with a party of men to examine the country in the 
neighborhood of what is now Monterey. On this excursion they 
discovered large estuaries which ran far back into the land. 

A few dayB later Ortega, on a second scouting trip, took a 
route around the Contra Costa and came upon another immense 
"Estero" on the northeast running far inland and connecting 
with the one on the southeast. This proved to be the Bay of 
San Francisco. 

Unable to find the Bay of Monterey and forced by lack of 

provisions to return to Son Diego, the explorers reported 
to Father Serra that the Bay of Monterey mysteriously hod 
eluded them hut they had traveled forty leagues northward 
from the supposed location of this estuary sad had discovered 
the Bey of dr a Francisco. At this aero the holy father's 
3 oy rrs unbounded. He rell remembered that when Delves, 
the Visits dor~3eneral , had resigned the of dan Di'ego, 
Monterey end Can Buenaventura to the three missions to be 
founded he had failed to designate one for Gt. Francis, the 
founder of the Franciscan order. ’.Then Father Berra, had re- 
monstrated with Driven over this the latter had replied: 

"If 3t. Francis desires a mission, let him show us his harbor 

and he shall have one." And lo, the miracle had happened 

the Bay .of leu. Francisco had apneared and the Fisitrdor— 
General was later to accept its discovery as proof that St. 
Francis wanted a mission in the new world . 

The first ship sailing into the Bay of 3nn Francisco was 
the pa chet beat Jan Carlos, also called the Golden Fleece. 

It sailed over the bar into the hay on the night of August 5 , 
1775, and remained within the port forty-four days. An ex- 
haustive examination of the harbor enabled Don Jose de C mi- 
seres, the pilot, to carry bach to the viceroy Den Antonio 
Maria. Bucareli a report that it was all one could desire. 

The Indians were friendly; fresh water, wood rnd ballast were 
abundant; the weather cold, free from fogs and healthy, fr.e 
of the best mrts, Don Jose 7 stated, "that I have seen on this 
coast from Cape Mom." 

Following this ’report authority was given for an expedi- 
tion for the settlement of Can Francisco and the establishment 


of a mission.. Cn June 15, 177 £, the colony arrived, under the 
command of Contain .Turn Erutist? de Ansa, rnd ptiched their 
fifteen tents on the "banks of e laguna which emptied into the 
Bsy_ of San Francisco. here, under s canopy of ever-greens , 
Father Francisco Prlou celebrated the first mass and in t hie 

temporary enc a went the "arty rer.rined until corn let ion of 
the Presidio and of the nice ion houses which sere built near 
the Ironr on the plain. 

Forrrl possession of the Presidio rrs taken lent ember 17 , 
1-77^, Feast of the Stigmata of St. Francis,, patron saint of 
the Presidio and the mission. Father Palou said mass, blessed 
and erected a cross, and sang the "?e Deura." This was followed 
by a flash of cannon and musketry and the officers took pos- 
session in the name of the king. 

-After 1776 coast- -defense. and the P.residio -buildings be- 
came the subject matter of voluminous correspondence between 
the officials of California and the viceroys- of I'erico. The 

first urgent request for improvements came from Commandante 


Sri, who forwarded to 'governor Jose a wlan of the build- 
ings and asked him to furnish sailor- workmen and a bricklayer 
to do the work of repairs. ' r ?ncouver , caustically writing of 
the needs of the Presidio at this time, described it somewhat 
as follows : "a square area, whose sides are about two hundred 
yards in length, enclosed by r mud wall, end resembling a pound 
for cattle. Above this wall the thatched roofs of their email 
houses just rake their appearance. *?r.e side is very indif- 
ferently fenced, in by r few bushes here and there, fastened 
to stakes in the -ground. The walls are about fifteen feet 
high and five feet in breadth, and are formed by uprights and 



horizontal rafters of large timbers, c etreen rhich dried sods 
and moistened earth form a kind of r.ud plaster, rhich '-ires to 
the rhole an appearance of durability. The church has been 
rhi trashed and is nert in comparison to the rest. The com- 
mandant's house has a dirt floor raised about three feet from 
the level, and the minders are mere holes in the thick v/r 11s, 
without rlrss." 

Commandante Cal, repeatedly re cues tins; funds for restora- 
tion purposes, rrote to the viceroy that many of the Presidio 
buildings- rere likely to fall at any time, particularly the 
-church, rhich r~s in a precarious condition. In the earth- 
quake of 1312 this structure did fa.ll, and gradually the other 
buildings fell into decay, to be' rebuilt faultily and rith lit 
regard for preserving the simple and suitable lines of the 
originals. T he Officers’ Club, built in 1TJ&, stands upon 
the site of the first Commandant 's house. 

To do any repair rork rhstever at the Presidio it ras 
necessary to bring timber thirty miles and tule nine miles. 

This, and the fact that at this time all attention rnd money 
rere spent on the construction of the Castillo de 3au Joaquin 
on the chore rnd the Battery of Yerbn Puenr, caused the Pre- 
sidio to be neglected until 1321, rhen Governor Cola called 
upon the padres to send a boat r/ith timbers and laborers to 
make repairs. In ray of that year tro boat loads of material 
f-o car-o enter o me t’-elve arrived at the Presidio to 

be'-in ■ ork. The buildings rere put into condition for the 
-arrison of ao T 'rnxir?'~t-ely fifty men and the. next year, 1322, 
rere taken over by the I'exicens for the duration of their 

occupation of the Presidio 


Prom 2S°r on ? century rnd more the Presidio hwildir. -e 

underrent continual rebuilding, remodeling rnd expansion. 

They received the attention of every Cour.rr.dinr officer rr.d 
every Poet guarte rr.wstcr -c-ivned to the station. Sisrll wonder 
then thrt durin- the years the simolicity of the original 
Spanish architecture became marred, sometimes lost entirely , 
by additions which, regardless of their cost rnd utility, were 
ur. symmetrical rnd inartistic . 

The Officers’ Club, rn rdobe structure erected in 1776 
end referred to on the Presidio records re 'To. 20 w »i n Post," 
had been r constant chrllenge to Post Commandants end Quarter- 
masters. But not until December, 1933 » "mere they in a position 
to begin its restoration. Colonel Doubles Potts, rho tecs then 
end is nor the Contending Officer of the Post, manifested a--'- 
keen interest, in the restoration of this building, . and Captain 
'Berney L. I'eeden, Quart erma ster'Corps , who res placed in charge 
of the work, performed his duties under Colonel Potts personrl 
supervision. It res decided to renovrte the entire building 
end restore it, in so fer es res possible end practicable, 
to its origins 1 lines. Research in Post rnd city records re- 
vealed interesting firte end enabled the architects to restore 
the original Commandant's house. It ras no small task. All 
the main foundations mere reinforced; in some places rails 
were rebuilt ~nd the trusses throughout the building rare re- 
placed v y stouter ones, on order to accommodate the r. eight of 
a Bp mi eh tile roof; huge beams v ere superimposed in the ceilings 
to give the interior an "old Piss ion" finish, and a broad fire- 
-olace designed to re-lace the - smaller original one; doors of 
hem timbers, ornamented with wrought iron work, mere made at 


the Post end out into the building; modern heating rnd elec- 
tric lighting systems rere installed fhroxighout. 

A replica of the old .Spanish coat-of-arms, 1700-1770 
period, ’ superimposed in plaster rnd stucco o’-er the center 
of the hu r e fireplace in the me in ballroom. Its vivid colors 
rere reverted in the long drapes of Spanish red shot rith gold 
rhich hrr.g at the rir.dors . 

The tro old adobe rings, one occupied by the Ladies’ 
Recreation F.oora end the other by the Officers 1 Billiard Room, 
needed little repciring, rs the origins 1 four-foot rolls rere 
in good condition. These rings and the main building rere re- 
roofed rith seurres of Soenish tile end the exterior rolls 
rere given a plaster finish of light ten stucco. Other ex- 
terior improvements induced rroujht iron grills on all rin- 
dors, e tile end cement plester fence built cro'rnd the bad: 
pres, a red-bricked ratio and carefully planted floral beds. 

The cluster of small buildings attached to the club p. rover 

. - — 

rere reenforced, reroofed end dref ini-shed to conform to the 
architecture! effect of .the main building. 

(Kota : Insert this article where red arrow indicates on Page 72, "The 
Quartermaster Review.") 

During the process of reconstruction on this building, I had ample 
opportunity to observe the original adobe walls of the two sections still left 
of the "OLD COMMAKDANCIA* « These two sections are known to us as the East end 
Test wings. Although not Joined together (there is a gap where the present 
Ball Room width exists) , at present, this no doubt was a continuous building 
when first erected and housed the COlffliANDANTE, the Non-Commissioned Officers 
and a Headquarters Office. All records and historical notes indicate that the 
CCE&IANDANTE or Commanding Officer occupied the East wing, the center being an. 
office and the West wing an N.C.O. room. The center section either fell during 
the earthquake or was allowed to fall in ruins through lack of funds to keep it 
.up. Some history notes state that a Chapel was in this center section, and fell 
during the earthquake in 1821. No other building was rebuilt there until the 
American occupation about 1850, when the entire building was again roofed and 
Joined, the gap being filled in with lumber. 

The East and West wing3 had walls on three sides only of adobe, the 
fourth wall of each roan being of lumber and plaster. These walls were about 
14 feet high and about four and a half to five feet thick. Upon baring these 
walls during this rehabilitation, it was found that while they showed the usual 
wear of age, there was no indication that any repairs or new adobe bricks had 
been used since the original construction. Due to the interior being protected 
by the roof and the exterior by a small outside porch, the weather and rains had 
done little or no damage. This is not unusual, as it is a well known fact that 
adobe walls well made, will outlast almost any other type of construction. (I 
have seen adobe buildings in Mexico that had stood up for over one hundred years 
even though exposed to the elements). While on duty about four years ago in 

Panama, it was my pleasurs to visit the site of OLD PANAMA about six miles from 
the present city. On this site still stands the Tower and several rooms of the 
old Cathedral, although this City was sacked and burned by the Engli ah Pirate, 

Henry Morgan, in January, 1671. It is all made of adobe. 

f i>.x ' ) 

Upon examination of the roof A ( all rafters had to be removed), no 
indications of the original roof remained, although on top of the adobe walls 
indentures were found There the old log rafters were once laid, .all window and 
door openings were found to be the same as originally left when the building was 
erected. This was possible to ascertain due to the fact that we had to remove 
and renew all door and window frame casings. These openings were ori$.nally left 
as openings only, unframed and unglazed, until about the early part of the American 
occupation when doors and windows were installed. A door in the East wing (front), 
"was "found to 'have been blocked out. "No "data -is available as to thy or when this 
was done, but from the appearance of the lumber and plaster used, it must have 
been about 1850 or 1860, and it was considered unnecessary to have more than one 
front door in this wing. It was restored Insofar as the outside is concerned, by 
a false door with iron work grill to conform with all other doors in front of the 
building. The inside was furred out and plastered to conform to the walls within. 

The method of rehabilitation on tho inside was as follows: all adobe 
walls were dry-brushed clean and a false wall furred out about four inches from 
their face. This was covered with metal lathe and plastered and given a Spanish 
Stucco finish. This was done to not only protect the walls but to carry out the 
plan of concealing all modern conveniences in the walls, such as electric light 
fixtures, heating radiators and so forth, and the work was carried out In such a 
manner that none of the original charm was disturbed. 

The roof, of a necessity, had to be reinforced in order to carry the 
heavy load of real Spanish tile (50 tons). This was accomplished by removing all 


of the old roof rafters and installing Ho to trusses with vertical steel truss 
rods as tension bolts in the Ball Hoorn section; the celling was raised six feet 
and a cross system of ventilation was provided above ceiling. The entire heavy 
structure is all above the ceiling, raise huge hewn ceiling beams were installed 
immediately below the ceiling, producing the effect of the old original Spanish 

In the West wing on the Ball Room side of the old adobe wall, a small 
opening was left in the furred plastered wall, with a glass cover, an electric 
light, which was installed therein, and by the pressing of a button the opening 
is lighted and a section of the original adobe may be viewed. 

In removing the floors (practically all of which had to be removed), 
nothing of interest was found. No indications of any original floor, Joists or 
. piers were in evidence. doubt was dye to the fact that the floors had 
been renewed many times since the construction of these buildings. No excavations 
were attempted or made within the area of where the original adobe walls were 
built. All wa3 kept four feet away so as to in no way weaken the adobe. New 
piers and joists were laid where needed, the joists being slid over the ground and 
anchored against the walls. In excavating for sane of the center piers, a brass 
sheet was discovered buried under about two feet of earth, badly bent and scarred. 
This sheet wa3 about 1/8 inch by 8 inches by ten inches. To all appearances, it 
was very old, although no information could be obtained as to what it was or 
itB source. It was decided that it would be an appropriate plate to have the names 
of the Commanding Officer, Colonel Douglas Potts { who was in command at that time) , 
and the undersigned (in charge of the rehabilitation) engraved upon it and the 
nlate installed on the wall in the hallway of the building. This was done, the 
engraving being accomplished in a beautiful manner by a C.W.A. mechanic on this work 



In the rear of the Club, a beautiful patio was planned. As no avail- 
able data could be obtained as to what kind of a patio existed when the building 
was erected, but the way the building was placed indicates that a patio no doubt, 
did exist. So I simply drew on my imagination and from what experience I had 
from viewing Mexican and Spanish patios and designed one. The sketch being 
approved, I had it constructed. The pavement wa3 made of old brick, hauled from 
old Fort Point { a building being danoliahed there at that time) and laid in ce- 
ment plaster irregularly, to give it en appearance of years of usage. Plants 
shrubbery were planted, and with Spanish iron work lamps and grills, the 
patio today is a beautiful- sight. A Spanish adobe wall was imitated around the 

rear of this patio, with hewn timber gates and a Spanish tile cap to carry out 

the effect. 

Barney L. Meeden, 

Captain, Quartermaster Corps. 

- 4 - 

(Article from "The Quartermaster Fevier" continues) 

A farce of as many ss thirty skilled mechanics per dry 
throughout the months of June, July end August, 193^, ue.s 
necessary to complete the uork of restoration, but no single 
detail ues overlooked. Jhen the tack ws completed md the 
building res opened to the members at a reception on August 
23, 1534 , they stepned into an interior structurally sound and 
eeuipoed vrith all the conveniences necessary to modern liv- 
ing. Yet so carefully had been done the mark of remodeling 
that the original charm of the !l C ommandanci a " remained un- 

The~buildir.g, erected the year that the Declaration of 
Independence ras signed and once the seat of the Spanish 
Pilitery Porrer in the Bay Region, stands as n link betreen 
othe -'long-gone .days of the Danish -explorers •and the present 
tire. For a century it has been the social center for offi- 
cers stationed on the west Coast, has been the rendezvous for 
those settin.v out for or returning from distant stations in 
the frient, from Pa.’vaii, Philippine Islands, Panama, and Alaska 
Even in the years taken it res decadent and unbeautiful its 
unfailing air cf hospitality earned for it the title of the 
"Army's finest club building," a name destined to cling to the 
remodeled "Commandancin" rhich today stands sound and lovely 
in the f lowering grounds of the Presidio of 3an Francisco. 



(Translation by Mother Dolores Sarre, 

San Francisco College for Women) 

1792 March 4th San Francisco 

Hermenegildo Sal to Romero information about the Presidio 

of San Francisco. 

This is accompanied by a copy of the plan made by (for map 

see Part 

his own hand (of which the one that is on the following III A) 
page is believed to be an exact copy) shows the state of the 
others (?). How exposed it is to a fire, one may judge by 
laok of. 

The store houses are built in stone and mud without any 
support (plaster) and therefore exposed to ruin. 

The guardia, the prison-cells, and the soldiers' houses 
are in stone and adobe; its walls are crumbling and for this 
reason they have put in the side of the square (plaza) counter- 
fort (buttresses) of stone to support (the walls) . 

The sergeant's house is of stone without support and is 
falling down. 

The one of the commandant and others are of adobe. The 
soldiers' dwellings are not equal to it. (?) 

All the walls of the church are crumbling and deteriorating 
and (the cracks) are wider in the -upper-part than in the lower. 

All the roofs in what is built in the Presidio are of straw 
(vacate) and tule and are very much exposed to a fire, as far 
as the authorities can realize it (judge of it). 

The winds blow in such a way, in the summer from the north- 
west, and in winter from the south and the northeast, that they 
are like hurricanes which make notable (tremendous) harm in the 

said roofs end every year one must attend to them with unend- 
less work. 

The garrison is small , the cares entrusted to the Presidio 
well known; so that the most urrt of the year it finds itself 
without more garrison than c sergeant or a corporal and the 
daily sentry and having to pass to the Presidio of honterey to 

receive is for the lapse of two months almost 

abandonned a.s it happened in the year £1. A sergeant, a cor- 
poral and two soldiers remain only in the Presidio; this, and 
many other drawbacks befall us, because the boat dees not come 
to this Port to leave the necessary (orovisions) . 

I am eye witness that this Presidio was begun to be built 
on July 27th, 1776 and at the end of JS the house of the Com- 
mandant was in adobe; one wall of 4 yards, height; a second 

3 yards, the third, 2%; end the fourth aleo 2-*-. The house 

in stone, stores, church and habitations for the troops in 
palisade and earth. During a rain fall in the month of January 
of 1779V the stores, the slaughter house, the church, the house 
of the commandant and of the troops and the greatest part of 
the four pieces of wall fell, in such a wry that at the end 
o'f the year 30, none of the houses built in the year JS were 
standing. The lack of intelligent workers for the construction 
and direction of the works contributed much to this; and at 
present they are still lacking. 

The adobe is bad in itself because of the dampness it 
crumbles; and thus, it is indispensable that the roofs in the 
South and in the Southwest side cover (protect) the greatest 
part of the walls. 


The lumber 1 b found at a dictrr.ce of more then ten leagues 

and if everything is favorabl.e a trip may be mode every reek 

and this not in rll the seasons of the year. 

One can rell inform the authorities of that has been done 

in certain occasions in this Presidio rith that stands actually, 

considering that in the year SO and Si the soldiers built again 

houses of ’-'alizade to shelter themselves end their families. 

All this that I manifest and expose is notorious and 

therefore I sign it. — The same date. — (Fernando) 

Hermenegildo Sal. 

p. 175-179 

Prov. State Papers. XI. 55 * 

1792 29th December. — Sal. to Arrillaga. 

The fourth rail (lienzo — piece of rail) is of palisade; 
as if they mere beginning to .rork cner in the Presidio, in 
the Forth side for I may say that there are no more than six 
houses in a useful condition rith that of the Commandant rhich 
ras built the year before. 

"(From flies of "American Guide", 
Federal Writers' Project, W.P.A.) 



The Presidio at San Francisco is the headruerters of the 
ITinth Crops Area of the U. 3. Array. Founded originally by the 
Spaniards, it ras one of the four presidios (forts) in the 
province; the others mere at \’rn Diego, Santa Farbara, and 
Monterey. The original purpose of these rail it ary establish- 
ments res to -orovide orotection to the ^adres during their 
efforts to convert the Indians, ^n many occasions, hovever, 
the activities of the Spanish soldiery amounted to brutal of- 
fensive against escaped neophytes or' those Indians rho held 
themselves aloof from the mission fathers. 

The site for the Presidio res selected by Juan Ba.utista. 
de Ansa, early in 177^> s^d founded by Lt. ‘forage, the dedi- 
cation talcing place on .Dept. 7 that year rith Father .Palou 
blessing the site and celebrating High Hass; after rhic-h there 
tras firing of cannon both from the fort end from ships in the 

Constructed on a military reservation covering an area 
of 1,542 acres, the. Presidio proper vras built in the form of 
a euadrcngle, 200 y-rds square, surrounded by a l4 foot vail. 

The first buildings rerr- a chapel, a storehouse, marters 
for officers and for the troops, all buildings were made of 
adobe and thatched i?ith rush. 

In 1^54 the garrison numbered j4 men v.ho rith their fami- 
lies constituted a settlement of 110. Ordinarily Spanish sol- 
diers mere unmarried, but Ansa had started his overland 



expedition with entire families selected from the poor of Sina- 
loa, intending to found a settlement on Sen Francisco Fry, rnd 
he appears to have chosen married soldiers probably with the 
■ idea of thus assuring a greater degree of permanency, governor 
Rivera of the Province of Sinaloa interfered rith his plans 
and only a small number of the party under the leader shin of 
Lt. I'oraga reached their destination there to found the Presidio 
settlement, at approximately the same time the Fission Dolores 
was established. 

In 1794, a fort, the Castille de San Joaquin, rrs built 
on the promontory overlooking the narrowest part of the Golden 
Gate. Known as Fort Point today, Anza had called it Punta del 
Csntil Blanco. The structure, 106 x 125 feet, was horse-shoe 
in shape and armed rith eleven brass cannon sent from Gar. Bias. 
Its parapets were ten feet thick. 

The garrison numbered about 60 men during the r eraeinder 
of the Spanish regime in California and for several years under 
I'ezican mile it rac maintained at similar strength. Regular 
troops were withdrawn in 1S35> and, as a result, both the Pre- 
sidio and Fort San Joaquin fell rapidly into a state of decay. 

Cn July 1, 1346, Fremont rith IP men crossed from Gausr- 
lito in a small launch and took possession of the deserted fort, 
spiking the cannon. ’Torch 0 of the following year, Col. ‘Jteven- 
. son rith a regiment of Few York volunteers occupied both military 
posts, raising over them, for the first time, the American flag. 

Under American possession. Col. I'ason extended the Presidio 
reservation to 10,000 acres which included the western portion 
of what is nor Golden Gate Park but the reservation was reduced 
to its original area when Thomas 0. Larkin, former consul of 



Monterey, claimed the land under a grant made by Pin Pico, the 
lest Mexican governor. The area of the Presidio today remains 
its original size except for a strip SO ft. wide cut from the 
eact frontage for a city -street. 

The present parade ground occupies the old Presidio site In 
1S54 the promontory upon rhich Port San Joacuin stood was leveled 
and Fort TTinfield Scott r?s built at a cost of ' 2,000.00. 

It was in the Comma ndsnte ’s Quarters, an adobe building, 
where, in I 0 O 6 , while her father was commander of the garrison, 
that Maria Concepcion Arguello lived her famous romance with 
the Russian, Rezanov. 

Hear the 3. <7. corner of the parade ground is the site of the 
house in rhich Sen. John J. Pershing and his family lived from 
1913 to 1915 rhile he was in command of the Fighth Cavalry Bri- 
gade. In the latter year while he ras stationed on the Mexican 
border his wife end three daughters lost their lives in the 
fire that completely destroyed the house. • 

Some of the old Spanish cannon are still on the grounds 
of the Presidio. Two stand in front of the Officers’ Club, 
and further west, facing the parade ground, are two others 
brought from Lima, Peru, and dated 1&73* 

Letterman Hospital, largest military hospital in the United 
States, is at the Presidio, where a large number of men injured 
in the '.Torld Mar are still being cared for. 

(From files of "American Guide" 
Federal Writers’ Project, W.P.A 

SAir franc isco ;.::d phfgidio 

The Bay of - 3 rn Francisco r.nd the cite tipon which the 
city is built were discovered in 1769 by Gergeant Jose^ Fran- 
cisco de Ortega, rho was in charge of the advance guard of the 
I'onterey expedition. Governor Gosper de Portola was commander 
of the expedition end sent Ortega and his men forward to ex- 
amine the country. They left camp, which res near Honterey, 
cn ’Wednesday, November 1st, and returned in the night of Nov- 
ember 3 r< i» discharging their firearms os they approached, by 
which sign all knew that important discoveries had been made. 
Ortega reported the discovery of immense estuaries which ran 
back for into the land. It proved to be the Bay of Sen Fran- 
cisco. A few days later Ortega was sent out again. This time 
his route lay around the contra costa. He left on the 7th 
and returned in the night of the 10th. Ke reported that he 
had seen another immense "Estero" on the northeast, which ran 
far inland and connected with one on the southeast, and that 
to double it would require many leagues cf travel. It is of 
interest to note that the Bay of- Gan Francisco was called the 
"Estero" until some time after the establishment of the Pre- 
sidio in 1776. 

The '"ontexey expedition was unable to find the bay of 
J'onterey and through lack of provisions was compelled to re- 
turn to 3rn Diego. Then Governor Portola reverted to Fx. Berra 
that he had been unable to locate the bay of N.onterey, but that 
the expedition had t 


raveled about forty leagues further north 

end hrd found the bey of Son Francisco, the holy father's toy 
res unbounded - as he rell remembered that rhen Galvez the 
Visitador-General had assigned the names of San Diego, Uonterey, 
end Sen Buenaventura to the three missions to be founded he hed 
not designated one for the founder of the Franciscan Order, St. 
Francis rnd rhen he remonstrated rith him Galvez had said, "If 
St. Francis desires a mission, let him sho?/ us .his harbor and 
he shell have one" - and lo, here res the harbor shorn to the 
emlorers rhen they rere in search of i-Ionterey, rhich had al- 
most miraculously eluded them, rhen notified, the Visitaaor- 
General Galvez accepted the discovery as a proof that St. 

Francis ranted a mission. 

The first ship to sail into the Bay of San Francisco ras 
the packet boat San Carlos, also called the Golden Fleece, com- 
- mended -by Don Juan Ltanuel de Ayala , rhose first pilot ras Don 
Jose de Canizares and the second pilot Don Juan Bautista Aguirre 
They sailed over the bar into the bay on the night of August 
5 , 1775 , and remained rithin the sort forty-four days, making 
exhaustive examinations of the port of Gan Francisco. Fic re- 
port to the viceroy Don Antonio !!?ri? Buareli ras all that 
could be desired. He sneaks of an abundance of fresh rater, 
rood and ballast. He mentions the reather as being cold, free 
from fogs and healthy. The Indians friendly and the general 
conditions as being one of the best "that I have seen on this 
coast from Cape T-Iorn." 

An Expedition for the settlement of 3an Francisco and the 
establishment of a mission ras ordered. 

Cn the 15 th of June, 17J6, the colony arrived under the 
commend of Cent. Jurn Eeutiste de Anza, end pitched their tents, 
fifteen in number, on the bonks of a laguna which errptied into 
the Boy of 3an Francisco. On the following dey, under e. canopy 
of evergreen, Fr. Frencisco Palou celebrated mess in honor of 
St. Peter end Paul, rhoee feest dry it was. The emigrants re- 
mained encamped here for the entire month awaiting the arrival 
of the packet boat. During the time timbers were cut and ore- 
pared for the presidio and the mission establishment, which was 
to be built near the laguna on the plain. 

August IfSth the packet boat arrived. The records say: "llos 
speedily a chapel and storehouses were erected at the presidio; 
a chapel, storehouse and dwellings for the padres at the site 
intended for the mission. Soldiers constructed barracks at 
-both places. They were made of timbers covered with tule roof." 

Formal possession of the presidio was taken September th, 

1776, Feast of the Stigmata of 3t. Francis, patron saint of 

# ^ 

the presidio and the mission. Fr. Pelou sang mass, blessed and 
erected a cross, sang the m e Deura, after which the officers took 
possession of the place in the name of the king, amidst firing 
of cannon and musketry. Palou says that the founding of the 
mission was delayed through lack of orders from F.ivera, the com- 
mandant . 

Coast defense end presidio buildings ’was the subject of 
voluminous correspondence between the officials of California 

and the viceroys of 1'exico, with but little effect. In I'.arch, 


17$2, Commandant Gal sent Covernor Jose P.omeu a. plan of the 
presidio building at Can Francisco, accompanied by an urgent re- 
quest for improvements, together with eight or ten sailor- 

workmen end a brick-layer to do the work of repairs. Vancouver’s 
caustic description gives the best impression of the needs of 
the presidio. It 1 s about es follows: The presidio was a 
souere area whose sides were about two hundred yards ir. length 
enclosed by a mud wall, and resembling e pound for cattle. Above 
this wall the thatched roofs of their low small houses just make 
their appearance. One side was very indifferently fenced in by 
a few brushes here and there, fastened to stakes in the ground. 
The rails were about fourteen feet high and five feet in breadth, 
and were formed by uprights and horizontal rafters of large tim- 
ber, between which dried sods and moistened earth formed into 
sort of mud plaster, which gave it an appearance of durability. 
The church had been whitewashed and was neat in comoarison to 
the rest. The commandant’s house had a dirt floor raised about 
’three feet from “the ‘level, add ‘the windows' were mere holes in 
the thick walls, without glass. 

Sal wrote that many of the buildings were liable to fall 
at any time, and that the church was in a particularly pre- 
carious condition, and in 1312 earthquake it fell. Tone of 
the structures were those originally built, as each year some 
of the buildings had fallen end been rebuilt in the same faulty 
manner. It was necessary to bring timber thirty miles end tule 
nine miles. Despite the appeal and the evident need for im- 
provements, all the attention and money were soent upon the 
construction of the Castillo de Can Jo a ruin on the shore, and 
later on the Battery of Yerba Buena. In 1321 Governor Cola, 
called upon the padres through the Prefect Payeras to send a. 
boat with timbers and laborers to make certain repairs at the 


presidio. The f ethers sent tro host lords of material, tro 
cero enters, rnd trelve axaen, in '?ay, of the sene year. The 
Cestillo de Sen Joeouin ras useless end the Battery no better. 

In 1S24- conditions rere not improved. 

The Presidio Officers ' Club is an Adobe building. It res 
erected in 177^ by the Spanish explorers under commend of Lieu- ' 
tenrnt Jose" Joe ruin liorsga. 

The Cl\ib formed p*>rt of a stockade rnd together vrith many 
other buildings ras enclosed, by r roll fourteen feet high rnd 
five feet wide. 

.About fifty men garrisoned the Presidio from its discovery 
until the I'exicen Occupation in 1822. 

The Officers’ Club -proper ras used by the Spanish rnd Hexi- 
cen Commandants as livin.c quarters and was not actually christened 
•and -furnished- as on officers ’ club until American occupation. 

The Presidio ha rr is on ras, until the California gold rush 
in lS4B, very small and no immediate danger ras ever feared 
from the Indians in this locality as they rere not inclined to 
be hostile, in fret ’-ere very friendly. 

The Officers’ Club and the Iglesia (church) rere the first 
buildings erected and in 179 2 practically the entire stockade 
excepting the east side ras completed. 

During the earthquake of 1312 , practically all the buildings 
and rails of the' stockade rere demolished, and the present Of- 
ficers' Club rith stood the shock and only sustained minor in- 
juries. 'The Church rhich ras built directly east of the Club 
buildin^ ras demolished and never rebuilt. 

The Commandants of the Presidio garrison rho used the Club 
with their officers and families little dreamed that a century 


• / 


hence their humble adobe would become one of the historical 
spots of San Francisco. 

In IS 53 the old fort res demolished by troops under com- 
mand of Trior J. Z. Bernard and the salvage material used in 
new construction. The club building was left untouched under 
this construction plan. 

This club building has been used as a headquarters under 
Spanish, Mexican, and American rule, In IS 50 the building was 
slightly remodeled. In 1900 this building was still further re- 
modeled. In 1912 electric fixtures v;ere installed. The light- 
ing system caused a. fire and the roof was damaged, repaired, 
and revamped. In 1915 still further remodeling was accomplished; 
ceiling fixtures and chandeliers were put in and the ceiling 
lowered. Practically no repairs to this building have been 
made from that date to the present time. In January 193^> under 
a Federal and Local Civil 'forks Administration project, the 
Commanding Officer, Colonel Douglas Potts, Infantry, re- 
stored the Club to its original architecture. This consisted 
of rebuilding the roof and side wall of the assembly room, 
bringing back the Spanish ceilings, with imitation flat beams, 
remodeling the fireplace in old Spanish effect, stuccoing the 
entire front of the building, and roofing with Spanish tile 
in place of the fire-proof shingles. 

Pith the splendid co-operation of the City and County of 
San Francisco in carrying the work on to conclusion, it having 
been started as a Federal CT/A project and carried to completion 
?8 s Local CV/A project. 


TTith slight changes during the many years the Presidio 
Officers’ Club nor holds the distinction of being the oldest 
rdobe building in the City of Con Francisco. 

The Club membership commences from the tirr.e of General 
George Teshington end continues through the eges of practically 
every general officer of the United States Array, rho during 
his service ra s either ? member or a visitor of this nor; famous 
Presidio Officer? 1 Club. 

Authority: Barney L. Teeden, 

Captain, g.U.C., 

Officer in Charge of Construc- 
tion of this Restoration. 

The Pr^e ldi o of Francisco . 

Federal '..riters 1 Project, V/. r . A. Sen 
Francisco Headquarters . — ITaterial 
extracted from files and historical 
reports thereof. 

The rails of the presidio, "begun "by -forage in the 
winter of Seventeen Seventy-six, were couple ted on three 
sides in Seventeen I T inet3 r -tro , "but on the fourth or erst 
side was a palisade supplemented by bushes to cover its 
appearance. About the beginning of the century, the 
fourth wall was comoleted to correspond with the others. 
In Eighteen twelve, an earthquake threw down a large 
pert of the eastern and southern rails and nearly all 
of the northern rail. It also ruined the church and 
- s_ number .of buildings within the .enclosure, (After IS35) 

there seems to have been no regular troops at the 

presidio. The rails were down and the Fort was crumbling 




. Bancroft, Hubert Howe. — History of Cali- 62 

fomia. San Francisco. The History 
Company, 1334-90. 

. s 

v. I, ch. XIII, p 239. (At founding July- Sept ember, 1776 )..... 
work was ira-.edir.tely begun on permanent buildings for the 
Presidio, all located within a square of ninety-two yards, 
according to a plan by Canizeres. Quiroo sent ashore 
his two canenters and ? sruad of sailors to work on the 
storehouse, commandant *s dwelling, and chapel, while the 
soldiers erected houses for themselves and families. All 
the buildings were of palisade walls, and roofed with 

*v. ♦Ij-’Ch. 'XT, p.~3>4. -’At -San -Francisco walls were also being 
built, but of adobe, which the rains of January and Feb- 
ruary of 1779 undermined and destroyed, showing that here 
also stone must be used.... At San Francisco Presidio a 
new chapel was 'in course of erection at the beginning of 
I 70 O.....A house was burned at the Presidio Get. 11, 1779 > 
and with it the hospital tent of the two vessels Princess 
and Favorite . 

v, 1, ch. XXII, p. 472. (I 733 - 9 O) The presidial force was 

thirty-four men besides the officers, from fifteen to 
twenty of whom served in the garrison while the rest did 
guard duty at the mission, at Santa Clara, and. at San Jose”! 



With their families they amounted to a copulation of 
about one hundred and thirty. Of the Presidio buildinr-s 
there is nothing to be said beyond the fact that from 
went of timber, bad ouality of adobes, end lech of skill- 
ful workmen, no permanent progress was made durinrr the 
decade. Some portion of the wells was generally in ruins, 
and the soldiers in some cases had to erect the old- 
fashioned oelisede structures to shelter their families. 

v. 1, p. ^73 (17^4) . . . . .in February a chapel was comoleted 

v. 1, p. 695-7 On ’’arch 4, 1792, Comandante Sal sent the gov- 
ernor a description accompanied by a plan which I re- 
produce. Three sides of the square of 120 yards were 
occupied by adobe wa'lls-and houses, both of adobes and 
of rough stones laid in mud; and the fourth side was pro- 
tected by a primitive palisade fence. All the structures 
' were roofed with straw and tules, exposed to fire and at 
the mercy of the winds. All, except the commandant’s 
house lately completed and two or three of the soldiers’ 
houses, were, through the poor ouality of materials and 
want of knowledge and care on the cart of the builders, 
liable to fall at any moment, the church being in a par- 
ticularly precarious condition. Tone of the structures 
were those originally built; each year some of them had 
fallen and been restored in the same faulty manner with 
the same perishable material. Timber had to be brought 


thirty miles, and tules nine miles. The garrison res so 
smell end its duties so many thet 3?1 deemed it impos- 
sible to accomplish the necessary repairs. At the end 
of the year the same condition of affairs existed, and 
Sal urged the government to send eight or ten sailor-rork- 
men and a bricklayer; otherrise an appropriation of £3, 000 
rould he required to hire Indian laborers. ITeanrhile Van- 
couver visited and described the Presidio in ITovember, 
and he describes it as a "scuare area rhose sides rere 
about tro hundred yards in length enclosed by a mud rail, 
and resembling a pound for cattle. Above this rail the 
thatched roofs of their lor small houses just made their 
appearances." One side ras "very indifferently fenced in 
by a fer bushes here end there, fastened to stakes in 
•the .ground." The rail ras "about fourteen feet high, and 
five feet in breadth, and ras first formed by uprights 
end horizontal rafters of large timber, betreen rhich 
dried sods and moistened earth rere pressed as close and 
hard as possible, after rhich the rhole ras cased rith 
the earth made into a sort of mud plaster, rhich gave it 
the appearance of durability." The church had been rhite- 
rashed and ras neat in comparison to the rest. The floor 
in the commandant's house res the native soil raised about 
three feet above the original level. The rindors rere mere 

holes in the thick rails, rithout glass 3al to Ar- 

rillaga dates ITov. 29th, stating that rork on the build- 
ing ras finished, tile roofs on the church, rarehouses, and 
nine new houses for soldiers; but this does not agree rith 

the other records August 20, 1793 , the governor in- 

forms the viceroy of the bed condition of the buildings, 
although £‘1,400 have been spent on repairs since the foun- 
dation Jan. 31 , 1794, commandant to governor; house 

of 2 d officer in c bad state; adobes and tiles melting 

aray; Fill try to save the timbers Feb. 1, 1794, rpin 

cane near spoiling the powder, but hides and tiles were 

arranged to save it Jan. 22, 1796 , a heavy gale did 

much damage to church and one house June 30 th, the 

coming rains rill bring the old buildings down, and a new 
Presidio should be begun. ... .Aug. S, warehouses badly 

built and in great danger from fire In January 1300 

a hurricane tore off several roofs; ; 1,799 were spent in 
repairs during the year; and complaints continued. 

2, p. 127. Early in February 1302 a hurricane made wild 
■pork with many of the Presidio roofs; and two years later, 
after hasty repairs had given the garrison one winter of 
comparative protection, the heavy rales and rains of Jan- 
uary 1304 again wrought havoc rith the frail structures. 

2, p. 123. To La.ngsdorff in the spring of lSOo San Fran- 
cisco had "the appearance of a Oerman metairie . The lor 
wooden houses consist of one oua dr angular room. The home 
of the commandant is small and mean. A sort of parlour, 
with only white-washed rails, very scantily furnish, and 
about half the floor covered rith straw-matting, served 
as the apartment for receiving company." 



7 , 2, p. 12S. In July of the same year Arrillaga in a report 

to the viceroy represented the buildings as in a sad state. 
The commandant's house ras covered with tiles, but not 
those of other officers. The barrack had only half a 
roof and was not secure for the convicts. 

v. 2, P. 129 • On July 17 th Arguello wrote to the governor: 

"I notify you that 'since the twenty-first day of June 
there have been felt at this presidio some eerthc-uakes, 
eighteen shocks to date, and among them some so violent 
that as a result of them the rails of my house have been 
cracked, being badly built, so that one of its rooms was 
ruined; and if the shocks have done, until nor, no further 
damage, it is because they found no chance for lack of 

dwellings Finally in 1S10 Argiiello sent in the last 

complaint of the decade, stating that continuous storms 
had reduced the granary and four soldiers' houses to a 
woeful state; also the old barracks and the other struc- 
tures, including the chapel, the merlons, were entirely 
destroyed. The artillery barrack and cavalry ruarters 
were in so bad a condition that serious accidents were to 
be feared; the warehouse with its zacate roof .hod been 

v. 2, p. 371'(lSlS) The farce ras 68 soldiers, twelve invalids, 
and four artillerymen, of whom about 40 lived at the ore— 
sidio until BO men of Captain Favarrete's Son Bias infantry 
were stationed here in 1S19 under Lieutenant Yplle and 



Alferez Haro 


2, p. 372 rebuilding or extensive repair of the 

Fresidio proper. At any rate the old chapel res torn 
down to he rebuilt, end a provisional building fitted up 
in which the first mass res said on February 25, lSl6. 

Osio tells us that Arguello end his soldiers begen the 
work of rebuilding the Presidio square in IS15, and nearly 
finished it before Sola found it out and ordered a. sus- 
pension Amador also says the presidio was in process 

of reconstruction about ISIS. Choris gives a lithographic 
view of the buildings as they appeared in 1S16, a pic- 
ture which imparts but very slight information, and seems 
to reoresent the structures as complete. Chamisso, how- 
ever, says that the Presidio was newly built and covered 
with tiles, though the chapel had not been begun. In 
April ISIS Sola informed the viceroy that the southern 
block where the church was to be was yet unfinished, as 
were the corrals on the four sides, thus implying a re- 
construction, respecting which, more or less complete..... 

2, p. 372-3. Sept. 16, 1S16, one of the soldiers’ houses 
was burned, and l4 prisoners employed to out out the fire 
escaped. Choris says of the Presidio, ’sa. forme est carree. 
II a deux oortes toni ours occupe^es par une garde; les 
fenctres ne sont ouvertes que sur la cour.' Amador says 
the old structures were of oalo oarado, the new ones of 

adobes. Oslo, Hist. Cal., US., 5-21, says that Sola with 
his stick and Arguello with bis sword made some hostile 
demonstrations, whereupon Sol? threw at ay his stick and 
extended his hand, desiring to be friendly rith so brave 
a manj He says a boat was built by an English carpenter 
in thich timber res brought from Pan Rafael. Alvarado says 
the boat was built by three English carpenters, deserters 
from the Columbia River, captured in Alameda county, in 1316. 
The boat mas launched in Eov. , 1213, Dona Repdrlena Estu- 
dillo coming up from "onterey to serve as m°drin a and naming 
her the "Paulina". This lancha. mas of about five tons. 

Feb. 1216, correspondence between Arguello and Cola, shotr- 
ing that the old hoat had been badly damaged and after re- 
pairs destroyed in a gale. A new one to be built 

"April 3, ISIS, "Sola ‘to "viceroy on Presidio buildings 

Chamisco in wrong in saying the buildings were of stone. 
P.oouefeuil says that in IS17 the church which had been 
burned had not been rebuilt; but the temporary hall used 
as a chapel was kept in excellent condition. 

2, P.-524-. ...’..the presidial company of San Prancisco had 

dwindled to fifty men or perhaps less in IS30. 

2, p. 52&~5. Thus the effective military force was not 
over 70 men, of whom 25 were absent from the nenincula on 
escolta duty. (IS30) 

v. 2, p. 553. Captain Horrell was here in IS 25 . He de- 

scribes tbs oresidio as "built in the same manner as l!on- 


terey;" that is, "surrounded by a wall of ten feet in 
height, built of freestone, but much smeller, comorising 
only ebout 1?Q houses end a church." In 1326 occurred the 
visit of the Znglish navigator, Beechey. Of the buildings 
he says: "The governor's abode ras in a corner of the 
presidio, and formed one end of a row of which the other 
was occupied by a chapel; the opnosite side was broken 
, down and little better than a heap of rubbish and bones, 

. on which jackals, dogs, and vultures were constantly 


preying; the other two sides of the quadrangle contained 
storehouses, artificers' shops, and the gaol, all built 
in the humblest style, with, badly burned bricks, and roofed 
-with tiles. The chapel and the governor 's -house were .dis- 
tinguished by being whitewashed." 

v. 3 , p. 700. The presidial cavalry company varied in 1331-4 
.....the effective force of the garrison being from IS to 
ten soldiers. 

v. 3 , p. 703 - 5 . "eetings and elect ions-s-r-rthe former not very 

numerous, nresuma.bly were reouired to be held, and were 

held, so far as the records show, at the wrecidio, though 
some of the officials and most of the citizens lived else- 
where, the presidio, as we have seen, being almost entirely 
abandoned after IS 36 . (I 63 S) The Ojo de Figueroa near the 




presidio granted to Apolinario I.iranda "by Con. Benches (?) , 

1!'. had already a house there. Drinelle . add. R4-5. 

v. 3» ?• 709. Jose 7 Ramon Banchez says that in the uresidio re- 
gion, but distinct from the oresidio buildings, rere tro 
houses, one occupied by the Sra de Higuera, built of timber 
by the Russians;- the other of adobe at the Oj o de ague 
del Polin. 

v. 4, p. 431 . (lS^-4) A beginning ras made on a small building 

to serve as a kind of branch custom-house, the laborers 
being Indians from Ban Jos^ and Sonoma, and the material 
being taken from ruins at the mission and presidio. 

V. 4, p. 667 . (1845) "he sub-prefect res much troubled, and 

he also complained of the lack of office and prison, de- 
siring permission to obtain building material from the 
presidio or mission ruins, (original corresp. in Doc . 

Hist . Cal . !!X. , ii. 103, 127, 140,156,15®, ISO.) 


v. 4, p. 669 . (1344) Feb. 26th, diaz has received the order; 

no material can be had from the mission; rants authority 
to take tiles and lumber from the ruined buildings at 
the presidio. Feb. 2°th, more on the same subjects. The 
material of unoccupied buildings at the mission has been 
carried off, as that at the presidio rill be soon if nothing 
is done. 


5, p. 659 - (1S16) Francieco Sanches rps nominally corsen- 

dente at San Francisco until the end of Mexican rule, 
though practically no military duties rere performed by 
hirr. or any other. 

Bates, tlrs. D. B. — Incidente on land 
end rater, or four years on the 
Pacific Coast. Poston. Published 
for author, 1 S 60 . 

955 It consists of several blocks of adobe building's, cov- 
ered rith tiles. The rails of most of the buildings are 
crumbling for the rant of care in protecting them from 
annual ra ins . 


. Beechy, Captain F. 77. , R. H. — narrative 73 

of a voyage to the Pacific and. Beer- 
ings Strait, London. Henry Colborn 
end Richard Bentley. IS 31 . 

p. 4 (1326) a sickly column of smoke rising from rithin 

some dilapidated rails, misnamed the Predidio or pro- 
tection, res the only indication re had of the country 
being inhabited. 

p. 9 governor's abode ras in a comer of the Presidio, 

and formed one end of a ror, of rhich the other ras oc- 
cupied by a chapel; the opposite side ras broken dorn, 
and little better than a heap of rubbish and bones, on 
rhich jackals, dogs, and vultures rere constantly prey- 
ing, the other tro sides of the Quadrangle contained 
storehouses, artificers* shops, and the gad, all built 
in the humblest style rith badly burnt bricks, and roofed 
rith tiles. The/phapel and the governor's house rere 

distinguished by being rhiterashed The neglect of the 

government to its establishments could not be more tho- 
roughly evinced than in the dilapidated condition of the 

buildings in ruestion; The garrison of Efen Francisco 

consists of seventy-six cavalry soldiers and a fer artil- 
lerymen, distributed between the Presidios and the Mis- 
sions, and conseouently not more than half a dozen are 
at any time in one olace. 


Capron, E. S. — History of California; 
from its discovery to the oresent 
time. Boston. John ?. Jerett & 

Corapany. Cleveland, Ohio, 1S5 1 ?. 

' p. 9« The visitor to the presidioof San Francisco, and the 
adjacent fort, r.ill see comparatively little of their 
original outline, arrangement, or appearance. The for- 
mer is situated about four miles rest from San Francisco, 


and tro miles north from the mission. The fort stands 

on an eminence by the sea shore, froring darkly over 

the raters of the lolden gate. 

The presidio is on a pleip, surrounded by rising 
grounds, rhich are always covered with a mantle of green 
grass. Ho tree or shrub has ever diversified the scene 
■■-around it-. -The -old -adobe buildings, and a. portion of 
the rails, are there; but the hand of modern refinement 
has srept aray the dust and dilapidation rhich, in the 
mind of the traveller, thro?; around these ancient struc- 
tures their highest charm. The castle of the Mexican com- 
mandant e and the fort are nor occupied by American troops; 
and neat, whitewashed, picket fences supply the place of 
a large oart of the old mils. The presidio is cua dr angu- 
lar , each side being in length about one hundred yards. 

At each angle, on the outside, ms formerly a hollo*? bastion 
as high as the main rails, but much thicker, and about fif- 
teen feet souare. These rexe embrasured on tro sides for 
cannon. The buildings within the enclosure are situated 
on three of the sides, extending the whole length of one side 


end about half the length of the other two, ere of equal 
height with the wells, and ere covered with eerthen tile. 

Dsna, R. H. , Jr. — Two years before the 
r.sst er.d twenty-four ,r errs rfter. 

1'er; York. ?. ?. Collier S. Son, 1509 . 

(1S*5) ITo information of vrlue bearing or. Presidio. 

p. 399 (Sec. — Twenty-four years rfter) (Aug. , IS 59 ) the 

ruinous Presidio visited The rails stand as they 

did, with some changes made to accoramodeate a small gar- 
rison of United States troops. 


Davidson, George. — The diecovery of San 
Francisco Bay, the rediscovery of the 
port of "onterey; the establishment 
of the Presidio, and the founding of 
the .'lesion of Son Francisco. Sen 
Francisco. Partridge Print, 19 Q 7 . 

(17$2) Gives Vancouver's account first. 

(Later) Father Palou tells us that the Presidio covered a 

Square of ninety-tiro varas each side; this would be about 
two hundred and fifty-two feet, or smaller than Van- 
couver's estimate. We suppose it was enlarged between 
the dates 177 & end 179 2 * 

We have before us a plan of the Presidio made in 


1S>20 to show the effects of the great earthquake of 1S12, 
which -destroyed the "ission .buildings of 3an Juan Capis- 
trano and Santa Ynez. This plan is a rectangle in pro- 
nortion of eleven north end south and ten east and west. 

The whole arrangement is built to face north, the 
chapel was at the south or higher end of the parade 
ground, and extended into the souare and beyond the wall. 
On the east side of the chapel were the quarters of the 
Comandante; on the west those of the officers. The cuar- 
tel was near the northeast angle, the "calabozo" at the 
east side of the entrance, the guard-house on the west 
side. All buildings were about ten feet from the inner 
side of the wall; and around the whole parade ground was 
a line of trees. The flagpole was near the middle of the 

Assuming Father Palou»s size correct, and that the 'J'Q 
plan of 1S20 was in proportion, re estimate the chapel 
to have been seventy-five feet long and twenty-five feet 

The whole oarade was surrounded by buildings which 
were twenty-five feet deep. 

The chapel was destroyed by the earthnuake mentioned, 
sixty feet of the buildings in ruins, and one-half of the 
surrounding wall. 

This plan also marks the anchorage, the "pozo de los 
marineros", and beyond the southeast angle the houses of 
Karoos Briones y Kiramontes, and the "ojo de ague" El 


Captain Beechey surveyed the Bay of San Francisco 
in 1326, and found the Presidio in very dilapidated con- 
ditiaq with broken down walls, and equipped with three 
rusty iron guns. 

Davis, "Jilliam Heath. — Seventy-five years 
in California: A history of events 
end life in California. San Francisco. 
John Porell , 1929. 


4 (IS33) The presidio pas the military post, phere all 

the phite inhabitants lived, and vas commanded by Captain 
It. G. Vallejo, later General Vallejo. There pere probably 
at the barracks, including soldiers, betpeen tro and three 
hundred men, pornen, and children. 

1 Draping — same as Choris 



Duhaut *» Cilly, A. — Voyage rut our du, 
pi incipa lenient r 1? Califomie et aux 
lies Sandwich, ’-.endant lee annees 
1S26, 1327, 1S2S, et 1S29. Prris, Chez 
Arthus Bertrand libra ire, 1SB4. Trrns— 

* lrted from the French by Charles Frank- 
lin Carter. Car. Francisco. California 
Historical Society Quarterly, v. VIII, 

1529 . 

. 140 (1327) (Sailing into the harbor "Heros") almost at 

once re found ourselves opposite a cluster of houses which 
all of us took for a farm; but on examining them more 
closely, and consulting the accounts of the navigators 
I have lately cited, Vancouver and Roquef euille, I recog- 
nised the presidio. 


Dwinelle, John TThipple — The colonial 

history of the city of San Francisco. 

San Francisco; Printed by Tonne & 

Bacon. 1S66. 

Hist. Intro. DXVTI Quotes Vancouver's account. 

p. IS, para. 25- Description of a Presidio. 

"All the Presidios were established on the sane 
plan: Choosing a. favorable place, they surrounded it by 
a ditch, twelve feet wide and six deep. The earth of 
the ditch served for the outwork. The enclosure of the 
Presidio was formed by a quadrilateral, about six hundred 
feet square. The rampart, built of brick, was twelve to 
fifteen feet high, by three in thickness; small bastions 
flanked the angles; the Presidio had but two gates. Its 
armament generally consisted of eight bronze cannon, eight, 
twelve, and sixteen pounders. Although incapable of re- 
sisting an attack of ships of war, these fortifications 
were sufficient to repel the incursions of the Indians." 


Eldridge, Zoeth Skinner. — .The beginnings 
of Sen Francisco fron the expedition 
of A nza, 177 ^> to the city chrrter 
of April 15, IS 50 . San Francisco. 

Z. 3. Eldridge, 1912. 

p. 720 The rails of the Presidio, begun by horaga in the ri n- 
ter of 177^-77, r ere, at the time of Vancouver's visit, 
1792 , completed on three sides, but on the fourth, or 
easterly side, a compromise ras effected by a palisade 
supplemented by bushes planted to cover its epoearance. 

The adobe rails rere fourteen feet high and five feet 
thick. About the beginning of the century, the fourth, 
or east rail, ras completed to correspond rith the others. 
In 1212 an earthquake threr dom a large part of the 
eastern and southern rails and nearly all of the northern 
rail. It also ruined the church and a number of buildings 
rithin the enclosure. 

p. 722 (After IS 35 ) . Later the regular troops rere all rith- 
drarn and the fort and Predidio suffered to fall into de- 
cay: one old artilleryman. Corporal Joaquin Pena, being 
left as custodian of the government property. 

p. 722 ( 1 * 43 ). After this there seems to have been no regular 
troops at the presidio. The rails rere dom and the fort 
ra.s crumbling to ruins. 

Eldredge, Zoeth Skinner. — History of 
California. New York. The Century 
History Company. 1915» 5 v. 

1, p. 403 (1776) .... .Captain Cuiros soon had his sailors 
at work rith the soldiers on the oresidio buildings. 
Plans had been preoared by Pilot Jose Canizares for an 

enclosure of palings ninety- two varas or about 253 

feet, rith houses for the officers, barracks 

for the soldiers, a storehouse, chapel, etc., within it. 
These, like the presidio rail, were built of palings, 
but were plastered rith mud and roofed rith a thatch of 


Elliott, George H. — The presidio of Sen 
Francisco — in Overland Vonthlv . IV, 

Tan Francisco, April, loJO. 

?• 337 Sires Pelcfu, Vancouver, Beechey accounts. 

p. 339 (lc03) quotes Luis Arcuello. . .. ?3ince the Blst of June 

last to the present date, trenty-one shocks of earthquakes 
have been felt in this Presidio, some of rhic-h have been 
so severe that all the walls in my house have been 
cracked, owing to the bad construction of the same, one 
of the antechambers being destroyed; and if, up to this 
time, no greater damage has been done, it has been for 
the want of material to destroy, there being no other 
■ •habitations." 

p. 344 Today there are but few mementos of the old regime. A 
few of the old adobe buildings have been preserved at the 
presidio, and had been occupied by our troops from the 
conouest till the present. Vi thin our thirteen years’ 
knowledge of the garrison, sex^eral have been removed to 
give place to more comfortable habitations. In the "Old 
Adobe", nor standing on the southerly side of the spurre, 
have lived many gallant officers. 

Engelhart, Fr. Zeohyrin, 0. F. !!. — San 
Frpncisco or Mission Dolores. Chi- 
cago. Franciscan Herald Press, 19?^-. 

51 (August 1776) The plen followed ras drawn by the first 
pilot of the San Carlos . Jose Canisares, and wrovided for 
a stronghold ninety-two vares or two hundred and fifty- 
three feet square. Within this enclosure were to be 
erected of palisades and roofed rath tules the church, 
officers' quarters, rerehouse, guardhouse, and the bar- 
racks for the soldiers, colonists, and their families. 

In order that the buildings might be completed as soon as 
possible, Cantein Quiros sent over a soued of sailors and 
two carnenters, who, together with the workmen, might con- 
struct a good warehouse to receive the supplies, a house 
for the commander of the presidio, and a chapel for cele- 
brating the holy sacrifice of the !'ass while the soldiers 
were building houses for their families. 

106 (1737) Quotes Bancroft "the garrison consisted of 

thirty-four men besides the officers of the presidio 

buildings, there is nothing to be said beyond the fact 
that from rant of timber, bad quality of adobes, and lack 
of skilful workmen no permanent orogress was made during 
the decade. Some portion of the walls was generally in 
ruins, and the soldiers in some cases had to erect the 


old-fashioned - 02 structure to shelter their families." 

p. 110 (17$7) Quotes Vancouver's description of the Presidio. 

p. 120 (1736) thirty (soldiers at Presidio) . - 

p. 120 (1791) twenty-eight (soldiers at Presidio). 

p. 144-5. In July, 1S06, Governor Axrillpge reported the build- 
ings of the presidio to be in a sad state. The commander's 
house was covered with tiles, but not those of the officers. 
The barrack had only half a roof, and was not secure for 
the convicts. At Verbs. Buena there was not even a hut for 
•the gunners -and -the guns -were -useless from exposure. Tort 
San Joanuin wes well located, but needed repairs. Only 
three of the ten guns were in good condition. In June and 
July, 1203, the severest earthquakes ever experienced -on 
the peninsula visited San Francisco presidio. Tn July 17 , 
1202, Arguello v;rote to the Governor: "I inform you that 
since the 21st of June there have been felt at this pre- 
sidio eighteen shocks, and some among them so violent that, 
as a result of them, the walls of my house, being badly 
built, have- teen cracked so that one of the rooms was ruined; 
and if the shocks until nor have done no further damage, it 

is because they found no chance for lack of dwellings" 

In 1210 Ar'uello complained that continuous storms had 


reduced the grsnery and the houses of four soldiers to p 
woeful state. The old barracks and the other structures, 
including the chapel, the merlons, end esplanade at Fort 


San Joaquin were entirely destroyed. The artillery bar- 
racks and cavalry quarters were in so bad a condition that 
serious accidents were to be feared. 

p. 19^. Hotinson. . ...cane in the Brookline in IS 30 

writes: " T'e soon caught a glimpse of the Iott build- 

ings, with their dark tile roofs, resembling orisons more 
than duelling houses, and the residence of our Commandant 
was the most conspicuous amongst then. This was the pre- 
sidio. In its plan, it is similar to those already de- 
scribed, but it is in a most ruinous state. There are a 
few franea houses scattered about outside the square, and 
a short distance beyond...... 

p. 50 Plan of the Presidio , (seme as Bancroft v. 1, p. 695)* 


Engelhart, Fr. Zephyr in, 0. F. !!. — The 
missions and missionaries of Cali- 
fornia. (IV, V) , oan Francisco. 
The James K. Harry Company, l c jl £ . 

II, III, IV (index) consulted. To additional data given. 

II, p. 205 (1770 Quotes Palou's account of founding of 



Forbes, hrs. A. S. C. — California mis- 
sions end landmarks; SI Cemino Reel. 

(IT o Pub. given.) Los Angeles, 1925. 

p. 243-50 Gives Palou end Vancouver accounts. 

p. 25O Sal wrote that many of the buildings rere liable to 
fell rt any time, end thet the church res in ? particu- 
lerly crecarious condition. Tone of the structures rere 
those originally built, es each year some of the buildings 
had fallen end had been rebuilt in the seme faulty manner. 
It ras necessary to bring timber thirty miles end tule 
nine miles. Despite the appeal and the evident need for 
improvements, all the attention end money rere spent upon 
the construction of the Castillo de San Joaquin on the 
shore, and later on the battery of Yerba Buena. In 1321 
Governor Sola called upon the cadres through the Prefect 
Payeras to send a boat rith timbers and laborers to make 
certain repairs at the cresidio. The fathers 'sent two 
boat loads of material, tro carpenters and trelve axmen, 
in Kay, of the same year. 

p. 246 Officers Club Presidio (Conandante’s Home) 1920-25 . 

p. 243 Plan — same as Bancroft. 

p. 2U9 Drawing — same as Soule^. 


Gif fen, Helen S. — 'Presidios of Spanish 
Calif ornia" , in Westways, Automobile 
Club of Southern California, v. 29, 
Ho. 6, part 1, June, 1937* 

29. On September 17, 177&, under the command of Lieutenant 
Jose* Joaquin Moraga, the adobe ramparts of the Presidio 
of San Francisco were begun. By 1792 its walls were com- 
pleted on three sides, being 14 feet high and 3 feet 
thick. It was eight years before the fourth wall was 
finished. This military post suffered from wind, weather 
and earthquakes, the temblor of 1212 wrecking two walls 
and damaging the church. In 1^35 "the San Francisco com- 
pany, under General M. G. Vallejo, was removed to Sonoma 
"and by the following year the presidio consisted of noth- 
ing but the chapel and one row of buildings, while the 
inventory of IS 37 showed its defenses to consist of 
eight guns of iron, of which three were useless; eight 
bronze cannon, one pistol, one machete and a few odds 
and ends. It is interesting to note that the present 
boundary lines of the presidio are almost the same as 
those established by Anza, March 22, 1776. One original 
adobe building remains— —the Officers* Club. 


Guinn, James Hiller. — History of the 
state of California and biographi- 
cal record of coast counties, Cali- 
fornia. Chicago. The Chapman 
Publishing Company. 1904. 

71 Vancouver, who visited the presidio in November, 1792, 
describes it as a "sauare ares whoee sides were about two 
hundred yards in length, enclosed by a mud wall and re- 
sembling a pound for cattle. Above this trail the thatched 
roofs of the ion small houses ;just made their appearance." 
The rail was "about fourteen feet high and five feet in 
breadth and ras first formed by upright and horizontal 
rafters of large timber, between which dried sods and 
moistened earth were pressed as close and hard as possible, 
after rhich the whole was cased with the earth made into 
a sort of cud plaster which gave it the appearance of 

Guinn, James Miller. — History of the 
state of California and biographi- 
cal record of Oakland and environs. 
Los Angeles. Historic Records Co. 
I 9 O 7 • — 3?me contexts as in above 



Hittell, Theodore Henry. — History of 
California. Theodore H. Kittell. 

San Francisco, 1S35-97* 

v. 1, p, 401 (July, 1776 , At founding, one lieutenant, com- 
manding, two corporals, sixteen soldiers, and seven 
settlers all with families, except lieutenant; and a 

number of servants and five muleteers) immediately 

began erecting huts of brush and tules and a chapel 

p. 4(32 ( 1776 , founding) a Square space of ninety-two varas 

or two hundred and forty-seven and a half feet on each 
side was laid out and places designated in it for church, 
head-quarters, store-house, guard-house, barracks and 
..houses for the pobladores or. settlers. C.anisares drew a 
plan or map of the whole. The work of building houses 
immediately commenced; two carpenters and a company of 
sailors from the ship assisted at the labor; and in a 
shat time a store-house for the provisions, a house for 
the comandante and a chapel, all made of palisades of 
wood plastered with mud and thatched with tules, were con- 
structed and also many of the houses for the soldiers and 

p. 55 I (17$3) Hhile Arrillage was building his fort at San 
Francisco, he gave a description to the viceroy of the 
different presidios. That of San Francisco consisted of 



the house of the coraandante and six others, constructed 
of thick adobe end mud rails and roofed with a thatch 
of tules, which had to be renewed every year. There r?3 
also a small chapel and a few store-houses, built in the 
same manner and all liable to be destroyed in the course 
of a single rainy season. These formed two sides of the 
presidio square; the other sides were open and entirely 
exposed, except for the guard-house, which, however, was 
so badly planned and built that it afforded no protection. 

p. 5^2-3. When Cordoba and Alberni, in their surveys for new 
pueblos in the early part of 1796 examined San Francisco, 
they found it in very bad condition. The entire military 
establishment consisted of less than a dozen small adobe 
houses thatched with tule and partially surrounded with 
an adobe wall plastered over with mud. They were all in 
a ruinous state and liable to be overthrown by every storm; 
nor did a winter pass without damage to them. Such was 

the Presidio Cordoba set himself at work to make such 

repairs and improvements as were immediately necessary. 

He devoted his attention f irst to several sentry boxes, 
which he built in place of one that had been blown down 
by a storm the preceding February. Ke also repaired the 
powder-magazine, which had also been injured. 

p. 610. During the last eight days of 1793 and the first 


twenty days of 1799 » there had teen a hurricane of wind 
and rain at San Francisco, which battered down the adobe 
rails of the fortif ications there; and in February, 1S02, 
another furious storm at the same place bier off roofs 
and beat down palisades, completing, so to speak, the de- 
struction of previous years. The ordnance, which had 
never been of much account, was ruined. 

Hoover, Uildred Brooke. — • Historic soots ° 

in California. Counties of the coast 
range. Stanford University, Cali- 
fornia. London, 1937- 

322-3. 'Hie site of the Presidio of San Francisco was se- 
lected by Juan Bautista de Anza on Haxch 23, 1776. On 
June 27, 177o» Lieutenant -.'oraga and the little band of 
settlers, which had traveled all the ray from Sonora, to 
J'onterey with Anza, made temporary camo on the Laguna de 
Manantial, now Eighteenth and Dolores Streets. There 
they stayed throughout the summer while the Presidio was 
being built. On September 17 the Presidio was dedicated 
and Moraga took formal possession in the name of the King 
of Spain. 

.The Spanish and L-exicen governments never supported 
the Presidio of San Francisco adequately, and, consequently 
it was never well garrisoned. After 1335 regular troops 
were no longer stationed there, end by 134-0 it was in 
ruins. Since the American occupation on July 9> 134c, 
it has been one of the principal United States. Army reser- 
vations on the Pacific Coast. 

The sites of the old Spanish Presidio buildings have 
been marked. A bronze tablet set in a granite block was 
placed by the California Chapter, D.A.R., in 1923 at the 
southwest corner of the original Presidio building, and 
the other three corners were also located and marked by 
concrete posts bearing bronze inscriptions. The only 

building left from the Spanish period is the adobe 
cdmsndante’s headquarters on the south side of the parade 
ground. This ras the officers 1 ruarters under Spanish, 
Mexican and American rule, and is now used as the Of- 
ficers’ Club House. Four old Spanish cannon, dated as 
early as 1673, stand in front of this building. 

Langsdorff , C. R., von. — Voyages ?nd travels 
in. various warts of the world, during 
the years 1303, 1304, 1 SO 5 , 1306, and 
1307. Fart II. London: -printed for 
Henry Colburn. 1314, 

(From an English translation by Thomas 
C. Russell, Can Francisco, California.) 
The orivate wrese of Thomas C. Russell, 


p. 40 (1906) The whole establishment of (the Presidio de) 

San Francisco externally has the look of a Cermen farm- 
stead. Its Ion one-story buildings surround a somewhat 
long quadrangular court. The house of the comsndante 
is small and mean. A whitewashed room, half of the floor 
of which was covered with straw matting, had but little 

furniture, and that of an inferior quality. The furnished 
.half -served ■ as a. .reception room. 

opp. p. 36 . El Presidio De 3an Francisco (original drawings 

by an unidentified artist, and engraved on copper, etched 

on copper private press of T. C. Russell, Can Francisco.) 

(Explanation on p. j6 regarding this photograph as fol- 
lows:) This is-tlie first view of any part of San Francisco. 
The boat in the foreground is made of tules tied together, 
and is the work of the Indians and used by them. The 
group of high hills in the distance embrace the two peaks 
called by the Spaniards Los Pechos de la Choca (the breasts 
of the Choc?), but now called the Twin Peaks. The road 
running towards the shore leads to El Pozo de los Harineros 
(the deep water of the mariners, i.e., a 


nch or ing- ground) , 

now called the Presidio Harbor, probably the plpce where 
the San Carlos anchored in the late evening of Saturday, 
August 5, 1775 » the first ship to pass through the strait 
now known as the Golden Gate. This nor: historic plate 
was evidently not deemed worthy of re-engraving for the 
first English translation of Langsdorff's Voyages and 
Travels . 

The Levris Publishing Company (Author’s 
name not given). — The bry of San 
Francisco, a history. Chicago. 

The Lenis Publishing Company, 1392. 

159 (1776-36) In San Francisco, during the first ten years 
of the Presidio ' 3 existence, no improvements vere made 
in the buildings. The trails being in a. ruinous condition, 
the soldiers often had to erect palisade structures for 
their families. 

201 In 1244 had rebuilt (in Portsmouth Plaza) a custom 
house or receptoria, at the cost of $2,300.00 The 

.materials came ..from the ruins of the Presidio 

Hshx, August C. — The visit of the "Rurik" 103 

to v?r. Francisco in l£l6; IV Choris' 
description of San Francisco. Stanford 
University, California: Stanford Uni- 
versity Press, 1952. 

p. 359 . The presidio of 3an Francisco is about one marine 

rr.ile from the fort and on the sane side; it is square in 
form and has two ga.tes which are constantly guarded by a 
considerable company of men. The buildings have windows 
on the side towards the interior court only. The presidio 
is occupied by ninety .Spanish soldiers, a commandant, a 
lieutenant, a commissary, and a. sergeant. I'ost of these 
are married. 

opp. p.- 90 (Plate Il-b) Vievr of the Presidio of San Francisco 
in. 1316. (drawing) 

Kenzies, Archibald (naturalist on the 101 

"Discovery" with Captain Vancou- 
ver, 1790-9*0 — Kenzies* Cali- 
fornia Journal, edited by Alice 
Eaetwood, San Francisco. Cali- 
fornia. Historical Society Quarterly 
v. II, Ho. 4, January, 1929 . 

265 (Hovenber, 1792 .) (We entered) through a breach in the 
Wall, which might possibly be intended or left unfinished 
for a Gate. ... .occupied a scuare space of ground about 
four hundred yards on each side, walled in on three sides 
with Turf or Hortcr wall of twelve or fourteen feet high 
and rudely fenced in on the other or eastern side with 
a dead hedge. The Walled part is lined on the inside 
with a row of shabby mean houses irregularly built of 
the same materials and thatched with coarse long grass 
and bulrushes, as Habitations and Store-houses for the 
Soldiers and their Families who were about thirty-six 
in number under the command of the Governor as Commandant 
and a Serjeant, The Commandant's own dwelling could hardly 
be distinguished from the rest till we got on the inside 
of it, and then the friendly treat and hearty welcome we 
received from his Lady and Family made ample recompense 
for the poverty of its exterior, appearance. 

The Houses and Wall of the Presidio were built of 
Turf and 1'ortar in the form of large bricks worked up and 
incorporated with straw or grass and af terwards dried in 
the sun till they became hard and a.ppeared to be durable. 


We 8fw no guns or artillery of any kind if ve ex- 
cept e shattered one that lay before the entrance of the 



Pelou, Fray Francisco. — life of the Ven- 
erable Padre Frey Junipero Serra (ch. 45 
— The founding of the presidio and 
mission of Cur Father Saint Francis) 
I7S7. Feirly translated by George Kzra 
Dane. San Francisco. California His- 
torical Society Quarterly v. XIV, 5.935. 

. 105 (1776) tfith the aid of the sailors whom the master 

of the ship divided between the Presidio end the Hiesion, 
two structures were built at the Presidio, one for a 
chapel and another for a storeroom for provisions, end 
at the Mission one likewise for a chapel and another di- 
vided into living cuarters for the Fathers. The soldiers 
made their own houses at the Presidio and at the Mission 
as well, all of wood with roofs of tule thatch. 


Purdy, Helen Throop. — Sen Francisco as 
it was, as it is, and how to see it. 
San Francisco. ?. Elder & Comoeny, 

p. 92 (Beeching 1S26) A visit to the Presidio in IS 25 is 

thus described: "The Governor’s abode stood in a corner 
of the Presidio and formed one end of a row, of which 
• the other was occupied by a chapel. The opposite side 
was broken down and little better than a heap of rubbish 
and bones on which jackals and vultures and dogs were 
constantly preying. The other two sides of the quad- 
rangle contained storehouses, artificers* shops, and the 
jail, all built in the humblest style, with badly burned 
bricks, and roofed with tiles. TJhether viewed at a dis- 
tance or near, the establishment impressed the spectator 
with any other sentiment than that of its being a place 
of authority and, but for the tottering flagstaff upon 
which was occasionally displayed the tri-colored flag of 
Mexico, three rusty field nieces, end a half-accoutered 
sentinel parading the gateway, a visitor would be ignor- 
ant of the importance of the place." 



Rezanov, ITikolai Petrovich. — The Reza^- 
nov voyage to ITueva California in 
1S06. 3an Francisco. The Private 
Press of Thornes C. Russell, 1926. 

p. 101 (1792) quotes Vancouver's account. 

p. 102 (lSOo) Langsdorff, in describing his first visit 

to the Arguello family rith Rezanov, says that the whole 
establishment at San Francisco hed the appearance of a 
German farmstead, rith lor one-story houses inclosing a 
somerhat long cuadrangular yard. The house of the coraan- 
dante ras small and mean. A whitewashed room, scantily 
furnished rith but little furniture, and that poor, had 
■thalf its f IrroT-spnce -covered -rith -strar -matting, this half 
serving for reception purposes. Langsdorff notes the sur- 
prise of the Russians when a rich service of silver ras 
used at the dinner- table. 

In the Transactions of the Geographical Society of 
the Pacific (vol. 4, ser. 2, 1907) , George Davidson tells 

the Presidio's size as given by Fr. Francisco Palou, 

a Ervuere of ninety- tro varas each side; about two hundred 
and fifty-t'ro feet, or smaller then the estimate of Van- 
couver (about tro hundred yards) . Ke sunposes the square 
ras enlarged between 177& end 1792. A plan of the Presidio 
as it stood in 1220 is described by Davidson, "made," he 

"to show the effects of the great earthquake of 1012." 



The plan is a rectangle, in the proportion of 
eleven north and south and ten east end pest; the phole 
arrangement is built to face north; the chapel e.t the 
south or higher end of the parade-ground, extending into 
the square and beyond the pall; east of the chapel, the 
ouarters of the coroendante, and on the pest those of the 
officers; the cuartel, near the northeast entrance, the 
calabozo at the east side of the entrance, the guardhouse 
on the pest side. All the buildings pere about ten feet 
from the inner sides of the palls, and were twenty-five 
feet deep. Around the rhole parade-ground was a line of 
trees, with the flagpole near the center. The plan also 
indicates the Pozo de los Marine ros, or anchorage; the 
bio jo de ,a,gua," or SI Palin, and the houses of liar cos 
Briones y L'iramontes, beyond the southeast angle. 

Otto .von Kotzebue, on his first voyage, visited the 
Presidio on October 4, lolo, and pas received at the gate 
by the comandsnte, Don Luis Arguello. He says he found 
it as Vancouver described it. This is not satisfying, 

but Adelbert yon Chords so, the naturalist of the expeditio: 


does better. He says the Presidio is pith stone 
and covered pith tiles, but the building of the chapel had 
not yet been begun. Tiled roofs rere probably in evidence 
but Chrmisso must have been mistaken es to "stone building 

Kotzebue, on his seoond voyage, arrived at San Fran- 
cisco on September 27 , 1324. The Hexican colors pere now 

raving over Fuerte de 3an Joaquin; California, no longer 
e provincia of ITueva Espana, was now a territorio of the 
republic of L'erico; a soldier ras sent from the Castillo 
to beg from Kotzebue enough ponder to answer his salute. 
Don Ignacio Kart Inez rss not comandante at the Presidio, 
but was absent; Don Luis Antonio Arguello ras nor gov e ms- 
dor, and resided at Nonterey. Kotzebue visited the Pre- 
sidio, and says that it rss in the same state as on his 
first visit. 

Captain Frederick 77. Beechey visited California in 
1S26, in the Elossom. Kls description of California oc- 
cupies tro chapters of the second volume cf his Narrative 

(London, IS 3 I) • Visiting the Presidio in November, he ras 


rell received and entertained by Don Ignacio llartinez, 
the comandante, rhose abode, he says, res in one corner, 

forming one end of a ror, the other end being occupied 


by a chapel. The opposite side ras broken dorn, and little 
better than a heap of rubbish and bones, on which jackals 
(coyotes), dogs, and vultures rere constantly preying. 
Storehouses, artificers' shops end the jail, corrraosed the. 
other tro sides of the quadrangle. All rere built in the 
humblest style with badly burnt bricks, and roofed with 
tiles. The chapel and the coraandante's house rere dis- 
tinguished by being whitewashed. A near vier or one from 
a distance, intimates Beechey, impresses a spectator rith 
any other sentiment than that of its being a place of 

The history of the Presidio de San Francisco has 
never been written. As constructed in 1776-77* neither 
the rails nor the buildings remained intact after the 
second winter. By the time Vancouver arrived, probably 
nothing remained of the original construction. The re- 
marks of foreign .visitors chronicle changing conditions, 
the work of earthquakes , of rind and rain storms. Ho 
attempts to repair or reconstruct resulted in anything 
permanent. The little that does remain bears the un- 
mistakable marks of the destroying angel,, the irrepres- 
sible and inexterminable vandal, the destroyer at once 
of art and of the art preservative of arts. Hay the 
Indian'^ “good father at TTashington" come to the rescue. 

Richman, Irving Eerdine. — California 
Tinder Spain and Herico. 1535-3-347 . 

Boston and Ten York. Houghton 
ilifflin Company, 1911. 

2 S6. Finally, San Francisco, which in IS25 had as a Pre- 
sidio "120 houses and a church," .... .At San Francisco 
(1776), where Mission and Presidio were separate, the 
space for the latter was $2 yards square, and the walls 

were of palisades By the energy of Feve, in 1773, 

the palisades of San Francisco were replaced "by adobes. 
.....In respect to dwellings, Presidio and pueblo were 
architecturally alike: single-story adobes, with white- 
washed walls and roofs of asphaltura, or red tiles, but 

-with,, small .barred windows .and without gardens 

Rider, 7 r'er,or.t. (Corralled by F. T. Cooper) 

Rider’s Crl ifomia , a guide-book for 
travelers. Ter York. The bacmillan « 

Company, 1927 .- - - Xl 

p. ^7-9. The Presidio, rhich contains nearly 2,000 seres, although 
not under the jurisdiction of the municipal authorities, may • 
be properly regarded as s part of Sen Francisco’s park system. 
The Federal Government has done much to make it attractive, and 
has shorn a disposition to increase its expenditures for that 
purpose. The Presidio is transversed by excellently built end 
well-maintained roads, rhich are connected rith those of the 
city, and the driveway, rhich embraces views of the Golden 
Gate, the bay, the ocean, and large parts of 3sn Francisco, is 
unrivaled in attractiveness by any boulevard in America. 

The Presidio of a government reservation and headouarters 
of the U. 3. Army, 9 th Corps area, and it occupies the extreme 
I T.W. section of the city overlooking the Golden Gate. 

The Presidio is open to the public and is practically 
included among San Francisco’s popular drives. Historically 
it is important as marking the official birth-place of San 

The Presidio reservation dates from l!a.rch 28>, IJjS, ''•■’hen 
Lieutenant Colonel Juan Bautista de Anze erected a cross on 
Fort Point, rhich he named "Punta del Cantil Blanco" (Point 
of the sheep rfyite rock) : and ordered a fort to be built on 
the point and the Presidio under shelter of the hill. In 
August the first buildings "-ere erected under Lieutenant Jose*’ 
Joacuin borage. 

The festival of the stigmata of St. Francis, took formal 
possession in the name of the King of Spe-in. In October 1777 



Father Juninero Gerra paid his first vieit to 3 ph Francisco 
end looking upon the -raters of the Golden Gate said: "Thanks 
be to God, nor has ot. Francis, rith the Holy Gross of the 
procession of the Fissions arrived at the end of the Continent 
of California, for to get any farther it rill be necessary to 
teke the raters." 

As in all presidios -under Spanish ler, the area of the 
reservation equaled a square of J,000 or 1,362-j acres. The 
Presidio proper, or enclosed area, ras a sousre of about 200 
yards, surrounded by a 14 foot adobe rail. Then the English 
explorer, Vancouver, visited the Presidio in 1792, this rail 
ras still unfinished, and his description of one entire side, 
indifferently fenced here and there by bushes, ras resented by 
the Spanish governor Arrillaga, rho reprimanded the Comar.dsnte 
for allowing a foreigner to see the defenseless state of the 
post. Tire fort ordered by .Ansa ras finally built in 179^- and 
the rail finished in 1200, but the earthquake of 1312 threr 
dom a large part of it, also wrecking the chapel and several 
other buildings. The garrison of the San Francisco Presidio 
numbered approximately 60 men dom to I03O, rhen it ras reduced: 
and after 1235 the regular troops rere withdrawn, and the Pre- 
sidio and fort allored to fall into decay. 

After the American occupation a reservation many times 
larger than the old Presidio, ras laid out by order of Colonel 
!!ascn, comprising 10,000 acres and including the \7. half of 
rhat is now Golden Gate Park. This proved to be so needlessly 
large that a joint commission of navy and army engineers ras 
appointed to define new boundaries. Feanrhile the government's 
title ras disputed by Thomas 0. Larkin, former Consul at Konterey, 


rho claimed tro leagues of land including the Presidio under 
8 deed grouted by Pio Pico, lest 7'exican governor. It required 
long litigation to clear title end e year's work by the com- 
mission to restore the reservation to its original boundaries. 

The present Fresidio confirmed by executive order of Presi- 
dent Fillmore, December pi, IS 5 I, is practically identical rith 
the old Spanish reservation, rith the exception of SO ft., cut 
from the eastern frontage for a city street by act of Conrress 
in IS 76 . 

Folioring the 'main drive ’.7, from the car terminal re pass 
on R. the Letterman General Hospital, at time of erection the 
most extensive military hospital in the United States. A fer 
rods farther on L., is the parade ground occupying the site 
of the old Spanish Presidio although no trace remains of the 
adobe -rail, .rhich-oace surrounded it„ In Vancouver's day the 
sides of this scuare area rere about 200 yards long and re- 
sembled a pound for cattle. 

Above the rail the thatched roofs of their lor small houses 
just made their appearance. 

The rhole arrangment is built to face the north, the chapel 
ras at the south or higher end of the parade ground and extended 
into the sou^re and beyond the rail. On the east side of the 
chapel rere the quarters of the C.omandante on the rest side 
those of the officers. 

The Cuartel (ruarter) ras near the northeast angle, the 
"Calebozo" (jail) at east side of entrance, the guard house on 
the rest. Around the rhole parade ground ras a line of trees. 

The Comandante Keadciuarters, the only surviving landmark 
of Spanish rule, still stands on the 3. side of the square and 

is occupied by the Army Officers 1 Club. On the E. of eatrrr.ce 
door is a bronze tablet inscribed: "Presidio of S. F. Conan- 
dsnte Headquarters A.D. 177o M - Officers puarters under Spanish, 
Mexican and American rule and the oldest adobe building in San 

In I 0 Q 6 the Comaudante ras Don Jose^Arguello, father of 
Dona Maria Concepcion Arguello, rhose tragic story has been 
related by Bret Fr.rte in verse and by Gertrude Atherton in her 
novel "Eezsnov". In this old adobe house Count Eezonov, Chamber- 
lain of the Russian Czar, met and won the love of Dona Concep- 
cion. After some opposition, due to religious differences, the 
Arguello family consented to a betrothal, but the Czar ' s sanc- 
tion had still to be obtained, and Eezsnov impatiently sailed 
westward, promising an early return. Years passed and the girl 
-■still ■■■ waited,-. hut . nothing van .ever .heard .frontier lover until 
long afterward. An Englishman, Sir George Simpson, brought the 
news that Rezanov had been killed on his ray home rhile cross- 
ing Siberia. Dona Concepcion entered the Dominican Convent 
of 3t. Catherine at Monterey, dying in IS 57 at Benicia. 

Four ancient Spanish guns, tro in front of the clubhouse 
epd tro farther V; . face the Parade. Ground. The oldest tro are 
dated: Lima, Peru, 1673 . Rear the 3. ’7. corner of the parade 
ground is the site of the house occupied by General Pershing 
and hi 3 family from the fall of 1913 , rhea he took command of 
the 3th Cavalry Brigade, to August 15 , 19^5 > ’"hen the house 
ras destroyed by fire, during the 3enera.l's absence on the Mexi- 
can border, and his rife and three daughters rere burned to death 

At Fort Point, one mile M.u. from the parade ground, over- 

looking the narrov.-est point of the Golden Gate, is Fort win- ' 
field 3cott, erected in 1354-67 at a cost of ''2,000,000, Richard 
H. Dene, rho sar it in IS39, describes it 28 "very expensive rnd 
of the latest style." 

Fort Point, Anna’s *Punt a del Cantil Blanco", ras originally 
e promontory of serpentine rock, rising 100 feet above high 
rater. The fort built here in 1794- and named "Castillo de Can 
Joacuia" ras a huge adobe horseshoe, measuring 125 x 105 feet 
and ras armed rith 2 cross cannon sent from 3sn Bias on July 
4-, 1246. Fremont rith trelve men crossed from Ssusalito in a 
launch and spiked these guns, rithout opposition, since the 
fort ras deserted. In 1254 the promontory ras leveled to the 
rater’s edge to make ray for Fort Gcott, rhich ras built in 
part from the demolished ruins of the older fort. 

Headquarters of the division of the Pacific ras removed 
in 1251 to Benicia, but ras returned to San Francisco in 1357 
end has remained here ever since. Among the distinguished 
soldiers rho have held command in California are included: 

Albert Sidney Johnston, Edrin V. Summer, George Fright, Irvin 
I'cDor.ell, Henry Falleck, George H. Thomas, George Scho- 
field, 0. 0. Horard, and ITelson .A. Files. 

On the 3. side of the Presidio is the U. 3. Harine Hos- 
pital facing a small body of rater called Fountain Lake, the 
Laguna de Presidio of Spanish times. From this Lake, Lobos 
Creek named by Ansa "Arroyo del Puerto," flors dom to the 
ocean at Baker 1 & Beach. In early days the flov: ras said to be 
sufficient to drive a mill, and in lopo it became the source 
of 3?n Francisco’s rater stipply, brought by a flume over a high 

trestle clang the north share rnd over Block Point. Eest of 
Kountein Loke ere the Presidio CJolf Links (membership over 5-0) » 
adjoining the Presidio on 3. i3 "ountein Leke Perk (19 ecres) 
rnd running 3. bet Teen Funston end l4th Avenue, is the Presidio 
Perkvey, ~ fine nodern houleverd, one mile in length, forming 
? connect! r.r link rith lolden Irte Perk. 


Roquefeuil, H. Camille D. — A voyage 
. round the world, between the years 
1S16-1S19. London: printed for 
Sir Richard Phillips and Co., 


26 (1316) On the 10th, rith most of the officers of the 

crew, I attended, divine service at the presidio, which 
was performed in a great hall, till the church, which 
had been burnt, should be rebuilt; this chapel, which was 
white-washed and neatly kept, had an altar in pretty good 
taste, some pictures, end benches on the sides. 

Senchez, ITellie Van de Grift. — Califor- 
nia end Californians; the Spanish 
period. (v« 1 of 5 v.) Chicago, 

The Lewis Publishing Company, 1J26. 

1, p. 2 35» The fortresses consisted of souere enclosures 
surrounded hy a ditch and rampart of earth or brick, 
within which were the church, ouerters for the officers 
end soldiers, settlers* houses, storehouses, workshops, 
wells, and cisterns. Outside were grouped a few houses, 
end at a little distance was the King's form (El Rancho 
del Rey) , which furnished pasturage for the horses end 
mules of the garrison. 

Soule, Frank, Gihon, John H. !!. D., and 
Nlsbet, Janes. — The annals of San 
Francisco. Few York, IS 55 . 

71 (The presidios) were built in the form of a square of 
about three hundred feet on each side, surrounded by a 
wall twelve feet high, made of adobes . and most of them 
are now little better than a confused heap of dried mud, 
ranidly crumbling into dust. Within these bounds were 
included the commandante ' s house, barracks for the troops, 
a church, store-houses, and various other buildings. 


Stoddard, Charles Warren. — In the foot- 
prints of the padres. San Francisco .- 
A. ’■!. Robertson, 1902. 

opp. p. 114. Ho additional information, but one old photo- 
graph of the distant vierr of the Presidio taken in IS 56 
from Black Point. 

Vancouver, Captain George. — Ssn Fran- 
cisco in 1792; Yerba Euenr Cove, the 
mission and the oresidio of San 
Francisco. California. Historical 
Society Quarterly, v'. XIV. 1935. 

114-1S (1792) Ve rode up to the presidio, an appellation 
given to their military establishments in this country, 

and signifying a- safe wuard Its vail, rhich fronted 

the harbor, ras visible from the ships; but instead, of a. 
city or torn, rhose lights re had so anxiously looked 
for on the night of our arrival, re rere conducted into 
a spacious verdant plsinj surrounded by hills on every 
side, excepting that rhich fronted the port. The only 
object rhich presented itself, res a square area, rhose 
sides rere about tro hundred 3'ards in length, enclosed 
by a mud rail, and resembling a pound for cattle. Above 
this rail the thatched roofs of their lor small houses 
just made their appearance. On entering the Presidio, 
re found one of its sides still uninclosed by the rail, 
and very indifferently fenced in by a few bushes here and 
there, fastened to stakes in the ground. The unfinished 
state of this part, afforded us an opportunity of seeing 
the strength of the rail, and the manner in rhich it ras 
constructed. It is about fourteen feet high, and five in 
breadth, and ras first formed by uprights and horizontal 
rafters of large timber, between rhich dried eods and 
moistened earth rere pressed as close and as. hard as 


possible;- after which the whole was cased with the earth 
made into a sort of mud plaster, which wave it the appear- 
ance of durability, and of being sufficiently strong to 
protect them, with the assistance of their firearms, 
against all the force which the natives of the country 
might be able to collect. 

The Spanish soldiers composing the garrison amounted, 

I understood, to thirty-five; who, rith their rives, 
families, and a few Indian servants, composed the whole 
of the inhabitants, Their houses were along the wall, 
within the, and their fronts uniformly extended 
the same distance into the area, which is a clear open 
space, without buildings or other interruptions. The 
only entrance into it, is by a large gateway; facing 
which, and against the centre of the opposite wall or 
side, is the church; which, though' small, was neat in 
comparison to the rest of the buildings. This projects 
further into the spuare than the houses, and is dis- 
tinguishable from the other edifices, by being white- 
washed with lime made from sea-shells; as there has not 
yet been any lime-stohe or calcareous earth discovered 
in the neighborhood. On the left of the church, is the 
commandant's house, consisting, I believe, of two roorae- 
and closet only, which are divided by massy walls, simi- 
lar to that which encloses the square, and communicating 
with each other by very. small doors. Eetween these apart- 

. 2 

merits and the outward, rail was an excellent poultry house 
end yard, which seemed pretty well stocked; end between 
the roof end ceilings of the rooms was a kind of lumber 
garret: These were all the conveniences the habitation 
seemed calculated to afford. The rest of the houses, 
though smaller, were fashioned exactly after the same man- 
ner; and in the winter, or rainy sea.sons must at the best 
be very uncomfortable duellings. For though the walls 
are a. sufficient security against the inclemency of the 
weather, yet the windows, which are cut in the front 
wall, and look into the square, are destitute of glass, 
or any other defense that does not at the same time exclude 

the light. 

The apartment in the commandant * s house, into which 
we were ushered, was about thirty feet long, fourteen feet 
broad, and twelve feet high; and the other room, or cham- 
ber, I judged to be of the same dimensions, excepting in 
its length, which appeared to be somewhat less. The 
floor was of the native soil raised about three feet 
from its original level, without being boarded, paved, 
or even reduced to an even surface; the roof was covered 
in flags and rushes, 'the walls on the inside had once 
been white-washed; the furniture consisted of a very spar- 
ing assortment of the most indispensable articles, of the 
rudest fashion, and of the meanest kind; and ill accorded 
with the ideas we had conceived of the sumptuous manner in 
which the .Spaniards live on this side of the globe..... 


Wilkes, Charles, Comdr., U.S.IT. — narra- 
tive of the United States Exploring 
.Expedition. Philadelphia: Lea & % 

r Blanchard. 1345. f. 5« 

5, p. 151 After passing through the entrance, we were 
scarcely able to distinguish the Presidio; and had it 
not been for its solitary flag-staff, we could not have 
ascertained its situation. From this staff no flag 
floated; the building was deserted, the walls had fallen 
to decay, the guns were dismounted, and everything around 
it lay in quiet. We were not even saluted by the sten- 
torian lungs of some soldier, so customary in Spanish 
places, even after all political power as well as mili- 
tary and civil rule has fled. I afterwards learned that 
the Presidio was still a garrison in name, and that it 
had not been wholly abandoned; but the remnant of the 
troops stationed there consisted of no more than an 
officer and one soldier. I was not able to learn the 
rank of the former, as he was absent, and appeared, at 
least among the foreigners, to be little known. 

Young, John P. — San Francisco. The S. 

J. Clark Publishing Comnany. Gan 
Francisco. Chicago, 1912. V. 1. 

1, p. 113. The Mission and Presidio were widely separated 
in San Francisco. The latter was at first constructed 
of palisades, but these were replaced by adobe rails in 
1773. It is cuite certain rhen the presidio buildings 
were erected. There was no longer any fear of Indian up- 
risings, but the original style of single-story, white- 
washed adobes, with roofs of red tiles seen in other 
parts of the province, ras adhered to by the builders, 
and sixty years later the same style of construction 
was still oursued. Richardson built an adobe house on 
.rha.t nor Dupont Street (Grant Avenue) west of Ports- 
mouth Sruare and a widow named Juana Briones caused an- 
other to be erected on the spot that is now the corner 
of Powell and Filbert Streets. 


Hutching* s California Magazine, v. Ill, 

Ho. 12 , June, IS59. 

p. 537 • Th® original buildings were constructed in a quad- 
rangular form; these having fallen into decay, but 
three remain, two of which at the present are used as 
storerooms. At the close of the war, this post was 
occupied by a company of dragoons, who were relieved 
by a company of the 3 *d Artillery, under Capt, Keyes, 
who reported continuously for ten years. Its present 
garrison consists of two companies of the 6th Infantry, 
numbering about ISO officers and men. (IS59) 



f v.nt «p ft/* *‘c w*si~ 

Ti<r}-< (»*»>«' /2o t/ *.YQ.\ «.( 


/ 7 ?Z ^ 

V* ^ //-t o 

^Ao?* ft (Jo cS J?ori 


S .7 /r-ts i die 


&+-nc rtpf 

C+.1 /rchivts 

Pta.K §t 1 YJ f C 

7Xii i$ tit a.*J f+c<t tk\ tVt\-h. 

(Explanation of numbers appears on following page) 

llotea written immediately below the tracing of the Presidio 

Scale which shows the habitations of -the Presidio de San Fran- 

1. The Guardi?. — the Sentry Station, has length 6 £ yards, 
width and 3 I of height. 

2. Cuartel (Brrrcks) , lenrth 1 6 yards, height and 
width 41- . 

3 . end 4. Prison-cells, 2 yards height, 2 length and 
1-1 width . 

5 . Store of clothes, IS yards length, 4-1 height and 6 
width . 

6 . Provisions store, " " " Jt " " " 

7 . and S. Houses of the Commandant, 37a' yards length, 

6 width and 41 height. 

S- ..Sergeant is - house . 

10 . Church; 19 yards length, 3 width and 4l height. 

11, Slaughter house, 4 yerds in square end 2-1 height. 
Habitations of troops from (?) to (k) 

(Copy drawn from the original) 

(The rest that relates to this building is copied in 
the following pares) 

Humber II is not indicated in the tracing 
Best is not clearly written 


SUr-Oso, Z~2i':. Sic inner 

Tia- * of San F"..n?<sco. 3oo rnr:!'ff, ^ooth =*. 
(vis rronUlc cf Sad rran.*!?so in lPSCj fr-.r. o tr«iT>r; in y 
certified 'by Gon« M.G.Vallc jo ) . 

~OT!*T* Os 

*» . *?*> 
• * i * — 

.TV/ - * 



Map of Presidio, 1792. Drawn and modified by 
Hubert Howe Banoroft. 

Sal . Informer; sobre Ion Edif felon rie San Francisco . 1792 , FS . 

1. Commandant 1 s~kouse, 4 roou3 and yard, 27 x 6 vnres, of adobes . 

2. Sergeant’s house, of etone, without raortar. 3* Chapel 19 x IS varas. 
4. Barrecke, guard-house, and calabooses, of adobe and stones. 5*6* 
Warehouses for food and clothing, of stones and nud. The other struc- 
tures arc the soldiers' duellings. 


Apparently based on Sal's wap of 1792, but modified, 
and included in Dr. Neashan's monograph on Presidio, 
following Page 2k. (See Part I A) 

PLATT OFXUT riLu.-CISCO PH33I3I0. 1792 3 nt*s House, 4- roor ra and yard, 111 ir 16 Ft., of aaors. 

Sor.-ean-ca* House, of stone v.dthoi" ?x> riar. 

Chapel 57 x 24 Ft. 

Barra cis r rpiard house and a i 1 ; of odohe and stone. 

Storehouse for food and clothing; cf stone and rrrud. Pertaining structures 
Soldiers* (HOlEs Ho. 1, Ocrandant’a House is on t is present s 
the officers* Club.) 

Apparently based on Bancroft. From Historical Section, 

Thirtieth Infantry, Presidio. 


or a , 




' View of the Presidio of San Francisco, 1315 - 
Davis, Y/m. Heath, "Seventy-five Years in California." "San Francisco", John 
Howell, 1923 . (facing pd ♦ 1: drawing by L.Choris). 






'HV'!'/ 9 

I’lintontiil mu limn 

Banoroft Libriry 
Hutchings’ Illus . California 
IVir.flzlno . v . 3 June 1859 ty 536 








•L 1^.* , • ‘‘‘tj 

0*. • *s* ••• -i» *£« 



Parade Ground at the Presidio of San Francisco before 1868 j old Mexican Comandancia in 

distance behind sentry box. 












rH ♦ 




P. jg 

W O 

w p 

® bfi 

u M 

T3 p 


H £3 

3 C 

S * 

O -rt 











Officers 1 Club at The Presidio of San Francisco, 193k to 1937 

Commandant 1 s House at left, barracks at center, storehouse at right. 

Light Artillery Drill, c, 1868 

Presidio Chapel, c. 1870 





1* University of California, Bancroft Library. 

2. University of California, Department of Agronomy. 

3. Public Library, City of San Francisco. 

4. Mechanics’ Institute and Library. 

5. Public Library, City of Oakland. 

6. Clerk’s Office, U. S. District Court, Southern Division 

of Northern District, California. 

7. Law Library, City and County of San Francisco. 

S. Law Library, Supreme Court, State of California (at 
San Francisco). 

9. Law Library, Circuit Court of Appeals , Federal Govern- 
ment (at San Francisco) . 

10. California Historical 8ociety. 

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on the 

of the 



Edited and with an Introduction by 

Robert W. Frazer 

(Report of Colonel Joseph King Fenno 
Mansfield, Inspector General’s Dept.) 

University of Oklahoma Press : Norman 


The Department of the Pacific, 1854 

< Presidio of San Francisco— 1 oh May > 

This post was under the command of it Lieutenant and Brevet 
Captain J. H. Lendrum of the 3rd Artillery since the it Febru- 
ary, 1854. The command consisted of Company M (Captain 
E.D.Keys [Keyes] absent with leave), 1 1 Lieutenant J. H. Len- 
drum commanding company and 2d Lieutenant Richard Arnold 
absent on detached service, 3 sergeants, one corporal, 29 privates 
for duty — 8 privates sick, 9 privates on extra duty, one corporal 
and 4 privates confined. Aggregate present: one commissioned 
officer and 55 privates. Absent on detached service: one commis- 
sioned, one corporal. Absent with leave: 1 commissioned officer 
and 7 privates. Absent sick: one private. Total present and ab- 
sent: 67. Attached to this post was Assistant Surgeon J. F. Ham- 
mond and Assistant Quartermaster Captain J. L. Folsom. 

The discipline of this command was good, but the company 
was not well instructed in the infantry drill and not at all as skir- 
mishers. This is in consequence of many recruits having recently 
joined. A squad was selected of the old soldiers who were carried, 
by Captain Lendrum, through the artillery drill with two pieces 

The arms and equipments of this company were in good serv- 
iceable condition for the field. The quarters for the soldiers were 
miserable adoby buildings, the leavings of the Mexican Govern- 
ment, but were kept in good police and order. And the quarters 
for the officers [were] not much better. A temporary barrack for 
the soldiers has been subsequently erected by order of General 
Wool. A remodelling and rebuilding of this post and quarters 
will be necessary at a future day when they will be required for 
troops to man the fortifications & c & c. The store houses for arms 

C *35 ] 




and clothing badly ventilated and not suitable — and there is no 
musician at this post. 

The Medical Department, in the charge of Dr. Hammond, 
who had been here but a short time, was in good order, but there 
was a deficiency of bunks, and the hospital building [was] a poor 
structure, and it should be levelled as it occupies the ground 
suitable for drills, parades, & c. 

The Quartermaster’s Department was in the hands of Captain 
Folsom, who had been here since the it April, and the supplies 
suitable, but all the buildings for stores &c & c worthless. He had 
expended 3^-96 4 yioo dollars, and had on hand 885°%oo dol- 
lars, deposited in the private banking house of Lucas Turner & 
Co. which, for reasons heretofore given in like cases, had not yet 
been deposited with the sub treasurer. He had in his employ one 
citizen clerk. 

The Commissary Department was in charge of Captain Len- 
drum and the supplies good and accounted for. He had in his 
hands 854 6 %oo dollars, of which 8i3 T %oo dollars was in the pri- 
vate banking house of Lucas Turner & Co. and, for reasons here- 
tofore given in like cases, had not yet been deposited with the sub 
treasurer. These funds are all presumed to be safe for the present. 

There were here ten long 32-pounders which required over- 
hauling, and the carriages cleaned up, and there is a large supply 
of balls here; and the post battery of four 6-pounder field pieces 
required painting. A garden existed here, but it was in very bad 
order and not, in my opinion, sufficiently large, yet there is land 

This post is three miles by land and about the same by water 
from San Francisco and about one mile by land or water from 
Fort Point, and is on the leward side of the heights which shelter 
it from the prevailing northwest winds, and is in full view of Al- 
catrazes Island, about one and a half miles off, and the only 


£ > 3 6 3 

The Department of the Pacific, 1 8 $4 j[ 

spot about here suitable for a command of troops, either for the 
forts or for instruction, and is ample and convenient. 

Brevet Captain Lendrum is an ambitious and meritorious 
young officer, but the duty of commander of post and of company 
and acting commissary, and the instruction of troops cannot be 
performed by one officer to the advantage of the service. 

I found, at this post, Company L, 3rd Artillery, commanded 
by Lieutenant J. Kellogg, temporarily attached to it, and 2d 
Lieutenant E. H. Day. The men were all recruits, and just 
landed from the AJantic States, and did not know the manuel 
of the musket and had not got cleaned up, and were occupying 
tents for want of quarters. As I found this company subsequently 
at Fort Vancouver in a very different condition and highly credit- 
able to the young officers in charge, I shall not further notice it 

This post was last inspected by Colonel McCall, late inspector 
general. 78 There are no Indians about here. 

£*37 3 





Washington, Dkcemijku 5 , 1870 . 






1870 . 

Reprint Edition: 
New York! Sol Lewis, 





Surgeon General’s Office, 

Washington, December 5, 1870. 

The following report on the Barracks aiul Hospitals of the United States Army, 
with descriptions of the principal military posts, is published for the information of 
Officers of the Army. 


Surgeon General United States Army. 



The Presidio of San Francisco, California, is situated in the northwest suburbs of the town, 
on a gravelly slope which ascends gradually from the sands and salt-water marshes on the southern 
margin of the harbor of Sail Francisco. It overlooks the bay, aiul lias in view the posts of Fort 
Point, a mile to the northwest, near the harbor mouth, that of Alcatraz Island to tho north and 
eastward, and that of Point San Josd to the east. 

The reservation contains about 1,310 acres, and lias a frontage on the. buy of about a mile and 
a half. Hack from the post the ground rises more rapidly into grass-covered hills. There arc no 
shade trees in the vicinity. The climate, is varied and variable; oftentimes mild and pleasant 
during the early part of the day, and chilly and damp toward its close. Strong winds frequently 



prevail toward the ciul of summer and antumn, while iu winter there is much moisture in tho 
atmosphere, either fulling as a heavy min or enveloping the post iu a thick penetrating mist, which 
creeps in from the ocean and spreads itself over the lower-lying portions of the harbor boundaries. 
Mean annual temperature, 52.50° F. 

The site of the post is well drained naturally, by a fall of one foot in twenty, bnt this is aided by- 
shallow ditches around the various buildings, so that even immediately after heavy raius, there are no 
standing pools. The parade ground is grassy- during the wholo year. 

The post is built on three sides of a parallelogram, 550 by 150 yards, which is open to the bay 
or northeast side. The general arrangement is shown in Plate No. 11. 

Thirty-six feet iu front of the row of officers’ buildings, and extending aloug their whole length, 
is a wind-fence or lattice screen of lath, 12 feet high, with brauclies extending at right angles from 
it to the buildings. This has recently been built to shelter these quarters from the stroug winds 
that sometimes blow from the ocean. Trees, pine and acacias, have been planted at IS feet intervals 
between tbc main fence and the buildings. All the buildings, with the exceptions noted below, are 
of wood, and well lighted and ventilated by the windows and ridge. 

The men’s quarters consist of one building, SO by IS feet, one 93 by IS feet, and four, each 51 
by IS feet, each one story and accommodating oue company, with kitchens anti mess-rooms ad- 
joining; kitchens furnished with monitor ranges; one building, 117 by 25 feet, two story, for two 
companies, with kitchen and iness-room in an adjoining building, 117 by 111 feet; four buildings, 120 
by 30 feet, each for two compauics, with kitchens and mess-rooms in basements. 

The officers’ quarters consist of one building, 111 by 32 feet, three story, with a wiug, 40 by 30 
feet, thirty-nine rooms, for bachelor officers’ quarters ; twelve one and a half story cottages, 31 
by 13 feet, with water-closets and bath-rooms at tached; comfortable and neat, for married officers. 

The laundresses’ quarters consist of one building, 90 by 2S feet, one story, twelve rooms ; one, 
45 by 37 feet, two story-, twelve rooms ; eight, GO by 27 feet, one story, eight rooms each ; one, 1G0 by 
29 feet, witli eighteen rooms; one S7 by 55 feet, with fourteen rooms; one, 45 by 25 feet, with three 
- rooms }-oue,-G9‘by'23 feet, .with* Uireo rooms>-^>ue-stoi-y;mrtobe*>ocr.npicd-b'y-6ev>ea .families* . . 

The post buildings consist of one building, 30 by 30 feet, oue story, four rooms, adjutant’s 
office; one, 40 by 30 feet, two stories, with porch in front; upper story- a guard-room; lower, 
divided into a main prison-room, 33 by 20 by 12 feet, and cells, each 10 by 5 by 12 feet; chapel, 45 
by 30 feet ; school-house, 30 by IS feet; bake-house, 42 by 18 feet — oven turns out a batch of 412 
rations ; hospital, 80 by 40 feet. 

The workshops consist of a wheelwright shop, 80 by 30 feet ; blacksmith shop, 50 by 20 feet. 

The store-houses consist of a magazine, 2S by 23 feet; quartermaster’s and subsistence store- 
honse, 110 by 30 feet, one story, brick foundation ; store-house for hay and grain, GG by 24 feet; 
store-house for hard -wood lumber, 51 by IS feet ; gunsheds, 175 by 30 feet, with ordnance stores 

in loft. 

The stables consist of two buildings for battery horses, 215 by 30 feet, with eighty-seven stalls 
each, well ventilated ; forage loft overhead ; mule shed, 430 by 1G feet. 

The hospital at the eastern angle of the parade ground, in line with the officers’ quarters, is a 
two-story building, SO by 40 feet, with a wing, 35 by 22 feet, on brick basement, with porch in front, 
and small inclosure behind. It is arranged for fifty beds, to each of which it gives an area of 76 
feet, or 1,025 cubic feet. Its average occupancy is seventeen. " It is divided into four wards, 40 by 
22 by 14 feet, a smaller ward for prisoners, 20 by 10 by 13 feet, and an attendants’ room, 20 by 18 
by 13 feet; each is furnished with water-pipes and marble basin, wardrobe, bedside tables, and 
chairs. They are well-warmed by grated fireplaces for coal, and lighted and ventilated by the 
windows. In addition to these, there is a dispensary, furnished with hot and cold water and the 
necessary fixtures; a library containing a large and very good selection of books; a post mortem 
room with table, ami two well-fitted up bath-rooms. The kitchen is likewise furnished with hot 
and cold water, lias a good range, and an adjoining pantry and store-room. The mess-room, 30 by 
20 by 10.} feet, is fitted up with the necessary tables aud benches, anti cupboards for crockery. In 
tho basement, besides the kitchen and pantries, are two store-rooms for medical supplies, and a 
coal cellar. On tho upper floor are two water-closets, which empty through the main sink in tho 
inclosnre into the sewer. 

rkc/- ten rc 


The regiment'll library of the Second Artillery is kept at this post, aud contains about 1,478 
volumes. The hospital library contains 500 volumes, comprising travels, biography, history, fiction, 
and books of a religious character. 

The water supply of this post is derived from the flume of the Spring Valley Water Company. 
It is forced by a windmill and mule-power into a reservoir at the southern or higher end of the post, 
whence it is supplied liy pipes to the different buildings. The supply is abundant, and the quality 
excellent. The waste-water pipes and latrines empty into a large covered sewer, which runs on 
either side of the post, and discharges into tide-water. 

A cow is kept for hospital rise. A small garden yields all the vegetables necessary for the hos- 
pital, aud is cultivated by one of the attendants. 

About ten acres are cultivated as post garden, producing potatoes, cabbage, turnips, onions, &c. 

The post is arranged for sixteen companies, but during the greater portion of the past year 
its garrison consisted only of the field, staff, baud, and Battery M of the Second Artillery, giving a 
mean strength ofS officers and 170 men. The quarters occupied by these troops are fitted up with 
iron bedsteads, and 1,225 cubic feet of air space is allowed per bed. Transient troops have fre- 
quently gone into quarters in some of the other buildings. Their diet has been of good quality and 
variety. A'large company garden, well cultivated, renders the post almost independent of other 
sources of vegetable supplies. The sick list has been mostly composed of venereal diseases con- 
tracted in Sun Francisco, and rheumatic affections, to which the wands and dampucss give origin. 
The daily per cent, of sick to command has been 10. Percentage of mortality to cases treated, .53. 

Statement showing mean strength, number of sick, and pi'incipal diseases at the Presidio of San Fran- 
cisco, California, for the years ISOS and 1SC0. 












S X 

55 « 

.a .** 


O «J 

JS *** 










e „ 



§ s 
£ J? 

«s - . 


■ * 

































, .a 
























* Include laryngitis, bronchitis, pueamonis, sod pleurisy. 











LIEUT.-COLONEL R. 0. TYLER, Deputy Quartermaster General U. S. A., Chief Quartermaster. 

January I, 1871. 

Department of California. 


presidio of San Francisco, California. E*t»ui«h«i i«7. 

LOCATION Latitude 37 deg. 48 min. ; longitude 122 deg. 21 inin. Post office at San Francisco, CaL, three miles from 


OFFICERS’ QUAR- Twelve cottnges 31x18 feet, bath room and water closet attached: and one frame building 114x32 feet, with 
TF-BS wing 44x30 feet, three stories high; divided into thirty-nine rooms. 

((ARRACKS Nine frame buildings for 300 men. 

L AUN DRESSES’ Eight frame buildings 00x27 feet, divided into eight rooms each. One frame building 00x28 feet, divided 
(QUARTERS into twelve rooms. One frame building 45x37 feet, two stories high, divided into six rooms. One adolm 

building 100x23 feet, divided iuto eighteen rooms. One adobe building 87x55 feet, divided into fourteen 
rooms. One adube building 45x2t> feet, divided into three rooms. Oue adobe buildiug 00x23 feet, divided 
into three rooms. 

j*T0BE HOUSES. ..Quartermaster’s and Commissary store house 110x30 feet; frame, with foundation built of brick piers; 

capacity for supplies for nine Companies for three mouths. For graiu, one frame building 00x24 feet. Oue 
gun shed with ordnance store room iu loft; frame; 175x30 feet. Oue frame buildiug 51x18 feet, for storage 
of hanl-wood lumber. 

WORK SHOPS .. Ooe wheelwright and blacksmith’s. 80x30 feet; frame. One frame building 50x20 feet, divided in center, 

* making two Company blacksmith shops. 

STABLES, ETC . ..Two frame buildings 215x30 feet, eighty-seven stalls each, aud small loft for forage. One nmle shed 430xlC 
• feet, frame. 

HOSPITAL . ....Frame, 80x10 feet, with L 35x22 feet; two stories high, aud brick basement Four wards 40x22 feet, and 
fourteen feet high; capacity for fifty beds each. A prisou ward 20x15 feet, aud ten feet high. Library room 
aud dispensary. 

MISCELLANEOUS One frame building 30x30 feet, Adjutant’s office. One frame buildiug 45x30 feet, chapeL One frame bnild- 

BU1LDIXGS. ing 30x1.8 fret, school house. Out* frame building 40x30 feet, two stories, guard house. Oue frame building 

28x23 feet, magazine. One frame buiUliug 42 x 18 feet, Imke limit*. 

-SUPPLY DEPOT. - * San -Francisco, CaL, three- miles distant. The route of supply is by wagon road. 

SUBSISTENCE. Two months’ supply is usually kept on band. 

WATER... The post is supplied with water by water wagons, aud pipe from the Tanucl Spring, about 2,300 feet from 

’ reservoir. * 

WOOD Wood is furnished by the contractor. 

COMMUNICATION. Between post aud nearest town is by wagon. 

RESERVATION The reservation on which the {>ost is situated has been declared by the President, aud 1,520 acres are held 

as reserved. 

DESCRIPTION OF Surrounding country hilly; soil sandy. Where sheltered, all kinds of vegetables can be raised. Timber 
COUNTRY, ETC. .aud water scarce. Climate mild. Fogs prevail the greater part of the year. Average temperature, 53, 14. 
Health of locality goo<L 

Information furnished by Lieutenant J. H. Lnr.i», R. Q. M., 2d Artillery, June, 1870. 











1872 . 

THE YEAR 1871. 


WASKiiSTGa, D. C. - 





(Established 1S47.) 



Location. — Latitude, 37° 4S' ; lougitude, 122 3 21'. PoSt-office at San Francisco, California, 
three miles from post. " 

Officers’ quarters. — Twelve cottages 31 by IS feet, bath-room and water-closet attached ; 
and one frame building 114 by 32 leet, with wing 44 by SO feet, three stories high; divided into 
thirty-nine rooms. 

Barracks. — Nine frame buildings for nine hundred men. 

Laundresses’ quarters. — Eight frame buildings <50 by 27 feet, divided into eight rooms 
each. Oue frame building 00 by 23 feet, divided into twelve rooms. One frame building 45 by 57 
feet, two stories high, divided into six rooms. One adobe building 1(50 by 20 leet, divided into 


eighteen rooms. One adobe building ST by 55 feet, divided into fourteen rooms. One adobe build- 
ing 45 by 2G feet, divided into three rooms. One adobe building Go by 23 feet, divided into three 

Store-houses. — Quartermaster’s aud commissary store-house 130 by 30 feet; frame, with 
foundation built of brick piers; capacity for J-uppiies for nine companies for three months. For 
grain, oue frame building GG by 24 feet. One gun-shed, with ordnance store-room in loft ; Lame ; 
175 by 30 feet. Oue frame buildiug, 51 by IS leet, for storage of hard-wood.lumber. 

"Work-shops. — One wheelwright and blacksmith’s, SO by 30 feet; frame. Oue frame building 
50 by 20 feet, divided iu center, uiakiug two company blacksmith-shops. 

Stables, &c. — T wo frame buildings 215 by 30 feet, eighty-seven stalls each, aud small loft for 
forage. One mule-shed, 430 by 1G feet, frame. 

Hospital. — Frame, SO by 40 feet, with L 35 by 22 feet ; two stories high, and brick basement. 
Four wards 40 by 22 feet, and 14 feet high ; capacity for lifty beds each. A prison ward 20 by 35 
feet, and 30 feet high. Library room and dispensary. 

Miscellaneous buildings. — Oue frame building 3G by 30 feet, adjutant’s office. One frame 
building 45 by 30 feet, chapel. One frame buildiug 30 by 18 feet, school-house. Oue frame build- 
iug 40 by 30 feet, two stories, guard house. Oue frame building 2S by 23 feet, magazine. Oue 
frame buildiug 43 by IS feet, bake-house. 

Supply depot. — Sau Francisco, California, three miles distant. The route of supply is by 
wagon road. . 

Subsistence.— T wo months’ supply is usually kept on band. 

"Water. — The post is supplied with water by water-wagons, aud pipe from the Tunnel Spring, 
about 2,300 feet from reservoir. 

"Wood. — W ood is furnished by the contractor. 

Communication. — B etween post aud nearest town is by wagon. 

Reservation. — T he reservation on which the post is situated hats been declared by the Presi- 
dent, and 1,520 acres are held as reserved. 

Description of country, &c. — Surrounding country hilly ; soil sandy. "Where sheltered, 
all kinds of vegetables can be raised. Timber and water scarce. Climate mild. Fogs prevail the 
greater part of the year. ■ Average temperature, 53.14. Health of locality good. 











Army war college 



LIEUT.-COLONEL R. 0. TYLER, Deputy Quartermaster-General, TJ. S. A., Chief Quartermaster. 

February 1, 1872. 

QUAXTSKJfcLSZZS-Gc*X3AX.*S OFFICE, Washington, D. C., May 19th, 1870. 

Buvtr Maj.*6xm. R. O. Tfleb, Chief Quartermaster, 

Military Division of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal. 

Gzxxitjuj— Please prepare and cause to be printed, in suitable book form * * * * * * * an outline 

iV-scription of the Posts and Stations of Troops in the Military Division of the Pacific * * * *. 

Thin work should also embody a brief preliminary statement, showing when the Military Division of the Pacific was established; 
what changes may have taken place in regard to the section of country therein comprised; a tabular summary of the estimated 
population, description, etc., of the Indian Tribes within its boundaries, the names and addresses of their Agents, etc. 

Very Respectfully, your obedient servant. 

M. C. MEIGS, QoABTEBKasTiE-GENiiun, Brevet Maj.-Gen., U. S. A. 




Presidio of San Francisco, California. Established 1847 . 

LOCATION. .Latitude 37 deg. 48 min.; longitude 12*2 deg. 21 min. Poet office at San Francisco, Cal., three miles from 


OFFICERS’ QUA It- Twelve cottages, 31x18 feet, hath room uml water closet attached: aud one frame building, 114x32 feet, with 
TERS. wing, 44x:ft) feet, three stories high; divided into thirty-niue rooms. 

BABRACKS Nine frame buildings for 000 men. 

LAUND RE S S E S.Eight frame buildings, 60x27 fret, divided into eight rooms each. One fra no* building. 00x28 feet, divided 
QUARTERS. ini.# twelve nmms. Uu« frame building, 45x37 feet, two stories high, divided into six rooms. One adobe 
building, l(*0x20 feet, divided into eighteen rooms. One adobe building. 87x55 tVet. divided into fourteen 
rooms. One adolx* building, 45x20 feet, divided into three rooms. Due iulobe buildiug, t»Ox23 feet, divided 
into three room*. 

STORE HOUSES.... Quartermaster's and Commissary store house, 110x30 feet; frame, with foundation bailt of brick piers; 

capacity for supplies for nine Companies for three months. For gruiu. one frame buildiug. 00x24 feet. 

. One guu shed with ordnance storeroom in loft; frame; 175x30 feet. Oue frame buildiug 51x18 feet, lor 

storage of hard wood lumber. 

WORKSHOPS.... ..Oue wheelwright ami blacksmith’s, 80x30 feet; frame. One frame building, 50x20 feet, divided in center, 
making two Compauy blacksmith shops. 

STA BLE S, ETC .Two frame buildings, 215x30 feet, eighty-seven stalls each, and small loft for forage. One mole shed, 

430x16 feet, frame. 

HOSPITAL ...... ...Frame, 80x40 feet, with L 35x22 feet; two stories high, and brick basement. Four wards, 40x22 feet, and 

fourteen feet high; capacity for fifty beds each. A prison ward, 20x15 feet, and ten feet high. Library 
room and dispe usury. 

MISCELLANEOUS. ..One frame building, 36x30 feet, Adjutant's office. One frame building, 45x30 feet, chapel. One frame 
BUILDINGS. building, 30x18 tout, school house. One frame buildiug, 40x30 feet, two stories, guardhouse. Oue frame 
buildiug, 28x23 feet, uiagariue. Oue frame building, 42x18 feet, bake house. 

SUPPLY DEPOT. . ..San Francisco, Cal., three miles distant. The route of supply is by wagon road. 

SUBSISTENCE .Two months’ supply is usually kept ou hand. 

WATER The post is supplied with water by water wagons, and pipe from the Tunnel Spring, about 2,300 feet from 

. the reservoir. A 

WOOD Wood is furnished by the contractor. 

COMMUNICATION.. Between post and nearest town is by wagon. 

RESERVATION . ...The reservation on which the jx>st is situated has been declared by the President, November G, 1S50, and 
modified December 31, 1351, and l,52u acre* are held as reserved. 

DESCRIPTION OF.. Surrounding couutrv hilly; soil sandy.. Where sheltered, all kinds of vegetables can be raised. Timber 
COUNTRY, ETC. and water scarce. Climate mild. Fogs prevail the greater part of the year. Average temperature, 53.14. 

. Health of locality good. 

Information furnished by Lieutenant J. II. Lord, R. Q. M. t 2d Artillery, Jmio, 1870. 




op nno 


1$ THE 

V » V 



~ + ' •- ■ 

7* * 











PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO, California. Established, 1847. 

Quarter t. 

Store-houses, «fe.. 


Miscellaneous build- 
ings . 

Supply depot. 

Water and wood 

Reservation. ... 

'Description of the 
country, <tc. 


Latitude, 37° 43' north ; longitude, 122° 21' west. Poet office at San Francisco, Col, three inilee from Post. 

For officers, twelve cottages, 31 by 18 feet, bath-room and water-closet attached, and one frame building, 
114 by 32 feet, with wing 44 by 30 feet, three stories high, divided into thirty-nine rooms. The barracks 
consist of nine frame buildings, for nine hundred men. Laundresses’ quarters, eight frame buildings, 
69 by 27 feel, divided into eight rooms each. One frame building, yO by 28 feet, divided into twelve 
Menu*. One frame building, 45 by 37 feet, two stoties high, divided into site toonia. One adobe build- 
ing, 160 by 29 feet, divided into eighteen rooms. One adobe building, 87 by 55 feet, divided into four- 
teen rooms. One adotie building, 45 by 26 feet, divided into three rooms. One adobe building, 60 by 
23 feet, divided into three rooms. ‘ 

Quartermaster's and commissary store-house, 110 by 30 feet, frame, with foundation built of brick piers ; 
capacity for supplies for nine companies for three months. For grain, one frame building, 66 by 24 feet. 
One gun-shed, with ordnance store-room in loft, frame, 175 by 30 feet. One frame building, 51 by IS 
feet, for storage of lumber. One wheelwright’s and blacksmith's shop. 80 by 30 feet, frame. One frame 
building, 50 by 20 feet, divided in center, making two company blacksmith's shops. The stables are ' 
two frame buildings, 215 by 30 feet, eighty-seven stalls each, and small loft for forage. One mule-shed, 
430 by 16 leet, frame. 

Frame, 60 by 40 feet, with L 35 by 22 feet, two stories high, and brick basement. Four wards. 40 by 22 
by 14 feet, capacity lor fifty beds each. A prison ward, 20 by 15 by 10 feet. Library-room and dispensary. 

One frame building, 30 bv 30 feet, adjutant’s office. One frame building. 45 by 30 feet, chapel. Oue 
frame building. 30 by 13 feet, school-house. One frame building, 40 by 30 feet, two stories, guard-house. 
Oue frame building, 2$ by 23 feet, magazine. One frame building, 42 by 18 feet, bake-house. 

San Francisco, Cal., three miles dielaut. The route of supply is by wagon road. 

The Post is supplied with water hy water-wagons and pipe from the Tunnel Spring, about two thousand 
three hundred feet from reservoir. Wood is furnished by the contractor. 

Between Post and nearest town is by wagon. 

The reservation on which the Post is situated declared November 6, 1850, modified December 31. 1851. 
Fifteen hundred aud twenty acres are held as reserved. 

Surrounding country hilly. Soil sandy. Where sheltered all kinds of vegetables can be raised. Timber 
and water scarce. Climate mild. Fogs prevail the greater part of the year. Average temperature, 
53.14°. Health of locality good. 

Commanding Officer. 




Washington, May 1, 1875. 


os Tax 






Reprint Edition: 

New York: Sol Lewis, 197h 


Was Department, Surgeon-General’s Office, 

Washington, May 1, 1875. 

The following report on the hygiene of the United States Army, with descriptions 
of military posts, is published by authority of the Secretary of War, tor the information 
of officers of the Army. 

Surgeon-General, U. S. Army. 





The Presidio of San Francisco, Cal., is situated in the northwest suburbs of the town, on 
a gravelly slope which ascends gradually from the sands and salt-water marshes on the southern 
margin of the harbor of San Francisco. It overlooks the bay, and has 
in view the posts of Fort Point, a mile to the northwest, near the har- 
bor-mouth, that of Alcatraz Island to the north and eastward, and that 
of Point San Jos6 to the east. 

The reservation contains abont 1,040 acres, and has a frontage on 
the bay of about a mile and a half. Back from the post the ground 
rises more rapidly into grass-covered hills. There are no shade-trees 
in the vicinity. The climate is varied and variable; oftentimes mild 
and pleasant during tbe early part of the day, and chilly and damp 
toward its close. Strong winds frequently prevail toward tbe end of 
summer and autumn, while in winter there is much moisture in the 
atmosphere, either falling as a heavy rain or enveloping the post in a 
thick, penetrating mist, which creeps in from the ocean and spreads 
itself over the lower-lying portions of the harbor boundaries. 

The site of the post is well drained naturally, by a fall of one foot 
iu twenty, but this is aided by shallow ditches around the various 
buildings, so that even immediately after heavy rains there are no 
standing pools. Tbe parade-ground is grassy during the whole year. 

The post is built ou three sides of a parallelogram, 550 by 150 yards, 
which is open to the bay or northeast side. The general arrangement 
is shown iu Figure 75. 

Figure 75. 

— 137 


A, B, C, D, officers’ quarters; E, F, barracks ; G, (guard house ; H, adjutant’s office ; I, wngon- 
nbop; J, quartermaster; K, bakery; L, storehouse; M, chapel; N, hospital; O, P, Q, plank 
walks; It, small stream, (sometimes dry;) S, gate in rear of barracks; T, sutler; TJ, V, picket 
fence in rear (cast) of officers’ quarters; W, X, picket fence in rear (west! of barracks; Y, road to 
Presidio wharf and beach ; Z, road to mountain-lake. 

Thirty-six feet in front of the row of officers’ buildings, and extending along their whole length, 
is a wind-fence or lattice screen of lath, Iff feet high, with branches extending at right angtes from 
it to the buildings. This has recently been built to shelter these quarters from the strong winds 
that sometimes blow from the ocean. Trees, pine and acacias, have been planted at 13-foot inter- 
vals between the main fence, and the buildings. All the buildings, with the exceptions noted below 
are of wood, and well lighted and ventilated by the wiudowsand ridge. 

Tho men’s quarters consist of one building, SO by IS feet, oue 95 by IS feet, and four, each 51 
by 18 feet, each oue story and accommodating one company, with kitchens and mess-rooms ad- 
joining; kitchens furnished with monitor ranges ; one building, 117 by 25 feet, two story, for two 
companies, with kitchen and mess-room in an adjoining building, 117 by 16 feet; four buildings, 
120 by 30 feet, each for two companies, with kitchens and mess-rooms in basements. 

The officers’ quarters consist of one building, 114 by 32 feet three story, with a wing, 40 by 30 
feet, thirty-nine rooms, for bachelor officers’ quarters ; twelve one-and-a-half-story cottages, 31 by 
18 feet with water-closets and bath-rooms attached, comfortable and neat, for married officers. 

The laundresses’ quarters consist of one building, 90 by 23 feet one story, twelve rooms ; one, 
45 by 37 feet, two story, twelve rooms; eight, 60 by 27 feet, one story, eight rooms each; one, 160 
by 29 feet with eighteen rooms ; one, S7 by 55 feet, with fourteen rooms ; one, 45 by 26 feet, with 
three rooms; one, 60 by 23 feet, with three rooms — one story, adobe, occupied by seven families. 

The post-buildings consist of one building, 36 by 30 feet, one story, four rooms, adjutant’s 
office; one, 40 by 30 feet, two stories, with porch in front; upper story a guard-room; lower 
divided into a main prison-room, 35 by 20 by 12 feet, and cells, each 10 by 5 by 12 feet ; chapel, 45 
by -30 feet ; school-house, 30 by IS feet ; bake-house, 42 by 18 feet — oven turns out a batch of 412 
rations ; hospital, SO by 40 feet 

The workshops consist of a wheelwright-shop, 80 by 30 feet; blacksmith-shop, 50 by 20 feet 

The storehouses cousist of a magazine, 2S by 23 feet; quartermaster's and subsistence store- 
house, 110 by 30 feet, one story, brick foundation; storehouse for hay and grain, 66 by 24 feet; 
storehouse for hard-wood lumber, 51 by 18 feet; gun-sheds, 175 by 30 feet, with ordnance stores 
in loft. 

The stables consist of two buildings for battery horses, 215 by 30 feet, with eighty-seven stalls 
each, well ventilated ; forage-loft overhead ; mule-shed, 430 by 16 feet. 

• The hospital at the eastern angle of the parade-ground, in line with the officers’ quarters, is a 
two-story building, SO by 40 feet, with a wing, 35 by 22 feet, on brick basement, with porch in front, 
and small inclosure behind. It is arranged for fifty beds, to each of wbich it gives an area of 76 
feet, or 1,025 cubic feet. Its average occupancy is nine. It is divided into four wards, 40 by 22 
by 14 feet, a smaller ward for prisoners, 20 by 10 by 13 feet, and an attendants’ room, 20 by 18 
by 13 feet ; each is furnished with water-pipes and marble basin, wardrobe, bedside tables, and 
chairs. They are well warmed by grated fire-places for coal, and lighted and ventilated by the 
windows. In addition to these, there is a dispensary, furnished with hot and cold water and the 
necessary fixtures; a library containing a largo and very good selection of books; a post-mortem 
room with table, and two well-fitted up bath-rooms. The kitchen is likewise furnished with hot 
and cold water, has a good range, and an adjoining pantry and store-room. The mess-room, 30 by 
20 by 10J feet, is fitted up with the uecessary tables and beaches, and cupboards for crockery. In 
the basement, besides tho kitchcu and pantries, are two store-rooms for medical supplies, and a 
coal-cellar. On tho upper floor are two water-closets, which empty through the main siuk in the 
inclosuro into tho sewer. 

Tho hospital library contains five hundred volumes, comprising travels, biography, history, 
fiction, and books of a religious character. 

The water-supply of this post is derived from tho flume of tho Spring Valley Water Company. 
It is forced by a windmill and mule-power into a reservoir at tho southern or higher end of the post, 




whence it is supplied by pipes to the different buildings. The sapply is abundant, and the quality 
excellent. The waste-water pipes and latrines empty into a largo covered sewer, which runs on 
either side of the post, and discharges into tide-water. 

A cow is kept for hospital use. A small garden yields all the vegetables necessary for the 
hospital, and is cultivated by oueof the attendants. 

The post is arranged for sixteen companies, but during the greater portion of the year 1874 it 3 
. garrison consisted only of the field, staff, band, and four companies of the Fourth Artillery, giving 
a mean strength of nineteen officers and one hundred and sixty-two men.. The quarters occupied by 
these troops are fitted up with iron bedsteads, aud 1,500 cubic feet of air-spaco'is allowed per bed. 
Their diet has been of good quality and variety. Large company gardens, well cultivated, render 
the post almost independent of other sources of vegetable supplies. 

Meteorological report, Presidio of San Francisco, Cal., lSTO-^L 




Established as a military post by the Spanish; the exact dote is not known. It 
was tir3t occupied by United States troops March 7, 1817, by Captain F. J. Lippltt’i 
company, of Colonel J. L>. Stevenson's regiment. First New York Volunteers. Sit- 
uated iu the north-west suburbs of San Fmncis' O, on a slope which ascends trmduallv 
from the saml aud salt-water marshes on » I.t- southern margin of the harbor of San 
Francisco, It overlooks the bay and has in \i«*w the p»?ts of .Fort Point, a mile to 






{he north-west, near the harbor mouth; that of Alcatraz Inland, to the north cud 
eastward; that of Point Son Jose, to the east; aud Angel Island, to the northeast 
Latitude 47' 2*J" 8"'; longitude 122 J 25' 15." Elevation above the sea about **m.' 
The post is built on the sides of a parallelogram, 550 by 150 yards, which in partly 
open to the bay on the uorth-west side. The nearest Post oflicc is in San Fmictmi, 
distance four miles. 

Buildings. Division headquarters established at the Presidio, July l f 1*58. by 
Act of Congress, approved June 13, 1878, occupies two buildings (8U'X30 / ), formerly 
barracks, in the center of the parade. 

Engineer office (43'X28') two stories, eight rooms. 

The adjutant's office is a one-story building (3C'X30') four rooms. 

Chapel (3(FX45'). 

School-house (SO'XW'). * 

Engine-house (20'X28'). 

The officers' quarters consist of fourteen (14) building* (the largest lU'xflyj thr«-** 
story, with a wing (4Q'X30') thirty-ume rooms in all, comprising 6ix seven-room set* 
and six two-room sets of quarters. Thirteen one and a half story cottages, with all 
modem improvements; very comfortable and neat. They face from the parade- 
ground and are numbered from right to left. All have nvo rooms on the ground lh*.r 
(except No. 7, which has one additional) ; the parlors are 13"X15', bedrooms 1$'XK»'. 
dining-rooms 13'Xld', kitchens 12'X17'. There are four rooms, and in some live, on 
the second floor, for bed and servants' rooms. All are supplied with hot and cold 

Barracks for enlisted men consist of six buildings, and can accommodate six ©ou>- 
paniesor batteries. Four are one story (SO'Xhh') with kitchens in rear:* 
story (SG'XSO') with squad room, orderly room, mess hall, kitchen, etc., complete; 
one, two story (120'XUl)') orderly room, mess hall, kitchen, library, etc., on first 
floor, and squad room upstairs; very complete and comfortable; all have wash and 
bath rooms attached. 

Laundresses* quarters. There are quarters for 19 married men, in nine frame 
buildings. Eight of the buildings are G0'X27', eight rooms in each; aud one 
12 rooms. There are three old adobe structures* built by the Mexican natives, now 
much delapidated, but with modem roofs iu good repair; one (1C0'X29') one story, 
twelve rooms, one huudred years old; oue (90"X2S') one story, six rooms; ou« 
(20 / X23 / ) oue story, three rooms. 

The hospital i» a two-story building ptO'XlG') with basement, and awing (35'X‘iS*). 
porch in front and rear. . It is divided into four ward* {40'X22'X20') for fifty beds; a 
small ward for prisoners (20'X10'Xlfi') and one attendant's room (20'X18''X13'|. 
Each is provided with water pipes and marble basins; also the usual hospital furni- 
ture. They are all warmed by grated lire-pluc«t» for coal, aud lighted aud ventilated 
by the windows. In addition to these is a disj* usury . furnished with hot aud 
water, aud the necessary fixtures. Tb»: kitchen in the baxim nt is liL* wise furtn 5 h<d 
with hot and cold water; hus u good range and an udjoiuitig pantry, store-ro^m. »ad 
mess hall. 

The bake-house is a one-story building (42'X18'J; oven turns out a . batch of All 

The guard-house is two story (30'X4Q') with porch in front; the first floor ia occu- 
pied as a guard-room, w ith cells attached fur general prisoners; and the second floor 
Is divided, into a main prison-room US'XiKi' XI 2' and cells lQ'XS'XH'. 

dkpaktmknt op California, 


H tore- houses. One for Subsistence nnd Quarterm»»»tir‘a stores, ouc story {IIO'XSO') 
with offices, etc., complete. One for ordnance stores, one story (8G'X55')» One 
( 35'X20 ') one story, for lumber lime, etc., with print shop attached. One (fi^XTi') 
one story, for wagons, etc. (out of repair), aud ouo magazine (28' XiW')- Forage in 
•lured In lort of stables and coal in sheds. 

The carpenter and blacksmith shop ts a one-story building (80'XW'). 

Stabler. One for private horses (ilti'X'Ji') eight stalls and carriage room. Two for 
artillery or cavalry (213'XhU'), with s*venty-oue stalls in one and soventy-six in the 
other, with lofts for grain aud hay. A small guard. house is near each. 

One baildiug {i7.Vx:w') is divided, onc-balf is uwd by Quartermaster's animate. 
With twenty stalls, ten single aud ton double; the other half as a gun shed for the 
Battery, aud store-room in the loft. 

The buildings are all of wood, with the exception of the magazine, which Is of 
•tone, and two sets of laundresses’ quarter* and two store-houses are built of adobes 
and are very old. AU have shingled roofs. 

Supplies. Quartermaster’s, Subsistence, and Medical stores are contracted for 
by the chiefs of the respective departments at Division Headquarters. The water 
supply is derived from the dome of the Spring Valley Water Company, which passes 
by the post on the northeast side. It is forced by a steam engine into a reservoir at the 
southern or higher end of the post, whence it is supplied by pipeB to the ditfc-reut 
buildings. The supply, as a rule, is ample, aud the quality excellent. The waste 
water pipes empty into large covered sewers, running both in front and rear of the 
quarters, and discharge into tide water. 

He serration declared by the President on November 6. 1850, and contains 1,542 

Description of country, etc. The reservation has a frontage on the bay of 
about a mile and a half. Back from the post the ground rises rapidly into grass- 
covered hills. There are no shade trees, except about the officers' quarters. The 
climate is varied and variable; generally mild and pleasant during the early part of 
the day, but chilly and damp toward its close. Strong winds generally prevail after 
11 a. at. daily during the summer aud autumn, while in winter there is much mois- 
ture in the atmosphere, either falling os heavy rain or enveloping the post in a thick 
penetrating mist, which creeps in from the ocean aud spreads itself over the lower 
lying portion of the harbor boundaries. The site is well drained naturally by a fall 
of one foot in twenty, so that eveu immediately after heavy rains there are no stand- 
ing pools. The parade ground is grassy all the year round. Mean annual temper- 
ature 52.50 Fahrenheit. The soil is well adapted for raising vegetables when 
irrigated. Each company aud the hospital cultivate a small garden and raise a 
variety of vegetables. The health of the command is excellent all the year round. 
The climatic diseases are acute rheumatism, coughs, and catarrh. 

Fumithed by Colonel Jotrph Roberts, 4th Artillery , March 21, 1877. Amended at 
Diriiion Headquarters April 00, 1879. 











Quartermaster-General’s Office 
October, 1904 


°mmm collet 





Latitude 37° 47' 29"; longitude 12*2- 20' 15". 

Elevation above ilie sea about 5S feet. 

Situated in the northwestern suburbs of the city of San Francisco, 
on the southern margin of the harbor of San Francisco, and overlook- 
ing the. bay. 

. — Established us a military post, by the Spanish, exact 
dale unknown. Continued as a military post, by Mexico, successor to 
Spain, and by Mexico ec-ded to the United States by treaty. 

Reserved for military purposes by Executive order dated' Novem- 
ber 1), 1850. Afterwards modified bv Executive order dated December 
31, 1851. 

Area, approximately. 1,500 acres. See also act of State legislature 
approved March 9, 1897, as to tide- water lands, etc. 

By General Orders, No. 133, of 1884, a part of the reservation at 
the Presidio,’ including the post cemetery situated thereon, was 
announced as a national cemetery of the fourth class, to be known as 
the San Francisco National Cemetery. Area about 9.5 acres, which 
was enlarged by General Orders, No. 7, Adjutant-General's Office, 
1896, by the addition of about- 15.5 acres of the military reservation. 

Under an agreement between the Secretary of War and the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury a tract of land was set apart, January 28, 1S74, 
for a marine hospital. The site was surveyed by the engineers in 
1881. It is an irregular tract, on the southern border of the reserve, 
and embraces Mountain Lake and adjacent lands. 

By act of Congress approved May 9, 1S70, a strip of land SO feet in 
width, along the eastern side of the reservation, containing 62.79 acres, 
was relinquished to the city of San Francisco for street purposes. 
(General Orders, No. 44, Adjutant-General's Office, 1S7C.) 

Under an agreement with the commanding general. Division of the 
Pacific, approved by the Secretary of War, 51 ay 2, 1881, the Presidio 
Railroad Company was permit ted to extend its tracks over the Gov- 
ernment reserve to the officers' quarters at the post. 

Licenses have been given the Western Union Telegraph Company to 
land a submarine cable at Fort Point: the Bell Telephone Company, 
and later to its successor, the Sunset Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany, to maintain a line across tire reservation to connect with the sub- 
marine cable at Fort Point: the. Treasury Department to use a portion 
of the reservation for life-saving purposes, erect a tower at Fort Point, 
etc., and to lay a water pipe for use of the life-saving station; the Presidio 
and Ferries Railroad Company t.o construct, maintain, and operate its 
line of cable railway on the reservation; also to three parties to allow 
cottages to project slightly onto the reservation. 

On the eastern boundary a small piece of land was taken from the 
reservation for the Rancho Ojode Augo de Figueroa. The fence was 
reestablished on the present, line by order of the department com- 
mander under date of February 11, 1899. 

Before the occupation of California by the United Skates t here existed 
a pueblo, or municipality, under Mexican law, upon the peninsula now 
occupied by the city of San Francisco. Among the privileges and 
immunities held was the right to -1 .square, leagues of land in and around 
the pueblo, in trust and for the benefit of the inhabitants. 



Upon llie admission of California into the Union in 1850, San Fran- 
cisco, wlien incorporated, Miccccded to nil the rights of the old pueblo, 
including the 4 square, leagues of land. Under the Mexican laws, how- 
ever, all puchlo grants were subject to the right of the General Gov- 
ernment to make, use of any portion thereof for military purposes, and 
in the transfer to the United States the lands so held became public- 
reservations without definite announcement. It appears that the lands 
at the Presidio within the limits of the San Francisco pueblo lands were 
held and occupied for military purposes from 1770 to 1S40, and that 
occupation for the same purpose by the United States has been continuous 
since the latter date. , 

• The military reservation of the Presidio tract and Fort Point, includ- 
ing Point Jose, was declared by President Fillmore November 0, 1850, 
in accordance with the recommendation of a joint military and naval 
commission appointed after the close of the Mexican war to designate 
suitable points for defensive works in the newly acquired territory on 
the Pacific coast. • . .. .. 

An Executive order of December 31, 1S51, issued upon the recom- 
mendation of the Secretary of War. based upon a report of the Chief 
of Engineers of the Army, modified the reserve and reduced its limits 
to a tract described as follows: ■ ... .. .. 

Embracing all the land north of a line running in a westerly direction from the 
southeastern corner of the Presidio tract to the southern extremity of a pond lying 
■ between Fort Point and Point Lobos, and passing through the middle of said pond 
^tnAits outlet to the channel of entrance to the ocean. 

.Point Jose, originally embraced in the reserve, was by the same 
(Executive order included in a separate reservation and its limits 
defined. (See Fort Mason.) 

. The claim of the city of San Francisco to the pueblo lands was sub- 
mitted to the United States courts for final adjustment under act of 
'Congress of July 1. Ib04. By a decree of the United States circuit 
' 'Court for the northern district of California, dated May IS, 1$G5. the 
-title of the city of San Franciseo was confirmed to the 4 square leagues 
(of land in the county of San Francisco, embracing the extreme upper 
portion of the peninsula above ordinary high-water mark (as the same 
existed at the date of the conquest of the country, July 7, 1840) on 
hvhich the city of San Francisco is situated, reserving therefrom ‘‘.such 
parcels of land as have been heretofore reserved or dedicated to public 
iuses bv the United States." Bv a decree of ihe same court, dated 
May 27, 1S05, an appeal to the Supreme. Court of the United States 
jwas denied, rendering the decision of May 18, 1805, final and con- 
clusive. This decree was confirmed by act of Congress approved 
March 8, 1800. . 

A survey of the Presidio Reservation was made in March and April, 
3800, by Deputy Surveyor James T. Stratton, under the direction of 
(the United States surveyor-general of California. It gives the area 
•of the Presidio Reservation as 1.382.22 acres, of which 119.12 acres arc 
.set down as “ swampand overflowed lands," and 1.205.10 acres as ‘‘up- 
land.'’ The tract designated swamp and over flowed lands’’ is marked 
(-••Claimed by A. W. Winn and others, purchasers from the State of 
- California.” This tract lies along the northerly line of the reserva- 
tion between the sand beach and the line of the uplands, or line of 
ordinary high-water mark, and extends from a point just east of the 
Port Point wharf to the easterly limit of the reservation. 


Upon complaint, of (lie military authorities this survey was not 
approved by the Interior. Department, as it appeared that the line of 
the reservation on tiie south side, as fenced in and recognized since 
1850, had been disregarded and a large tract excluded therefrom pre- 
sumably in the interests of land speculators. 

Under instructions of the surveyor-general of the United States 
dated August 19, 1881, a survey of the southern and eastern boundary 
lilies of the reservation was made in August and September. 1881, by 
G. F. A Hard l. United States deputy surveyor. By this survey the 
area is given as 1,405. SI acres, the southern boundary coinciding with 
that originally claimed by the militaiy authorities, as indicated by the 
location of the fence. 

A final survey was made in December, 1885, under instructions of 
the United States surveyor-general, by F. Von Leichr. United Slates 
deputy surveyor, to determine the exact limits of the city’s pueblo 
lands. This survey was approved and patent finally issued dune 20, 
1S84. It. fixes the area of the Presidio Deserve at 1.479.94 acres. 

■ By a decision of the Secretary of the Interior, in 1884, the southeast 
corner of the Presidio Reserve was fixed and marked by a monument, 
and the boundary line adjusted accordingly. 

The final survey of 1883, on which the patent to the city was issued, 
followed the courses of old surveys along the west and north water 
front of the city, except as to the meanders of the shore or certain 
points. Changes of this character along the ocean 1 1 ur v Oi the city 
caused a renumbering of the courses along the water front of the Pre- 
sidio Reserve, so that the figures do not correspond with the original 

Claim has been asserted to a portion of the waterfront of the reser- 
vation on the ground that the lands are tide or overflowed lands and 
pertain to the State, from which title has been obtained; but the mili- 
tary authorities, under the Executive order declaring the reservation, 
liofd all lands along the northerly front. It is understood that this 
tenure is not disputed by the city authorities and is conceded by the 
Interior Department. 

While the Stratton survey of 1866 was in progress, a party of land 
speculators followed up the lines as run by the surveyors with a board 
fence and proceeded to -erect a frame shanty for temporary occupa- 
tion, with a view to legalizing their claim to the lands excluded from 
the Government reserve on its southern side. The fence and build- 
ing were promptly removed and the preemptors ejected by the military 
authorities. Subsequently, application was made to the city for deeds 
to the lands in question, on the ground that they were public lands and 
that the laws as to occupation, etc., had been observed. The deeds 
were granted, and the large triangular tract along the south side of the 
reserve, between the lines asiixcd by the final survey and the Stratton 
survey, is assessed by the city for taxation in the name of the alleged 
owners who are paying taxes on a nominal valuation, with a view, it 
is presumed, to the assertion of their claim to lands which are now of 
great value. 

The United States general hospital, at the Presidio, was established 
in 1899. 

JJncx of connnunhation. — Post-ollicc and telegraph station, at the 
post; railroad station, San Francisco, Cal., distance 44 miles. Street 
railroad from San Francisco to the post. 




JliOnri/. — It wae Fcize<l by tlie United State? forces durinp the Mexican war, and 
was occupied Marcli 7, 1H4H, l>y Ciq>t. F. J. Lipjiilt’s company of Col. J. L>. Fteven- 
pon’e regiment, First New York Volunteers. Occupation for milkary purposes has 
been continuous to date. 

• February t, 1902, it. was recommended by a lioard of officers convened bv S]>ecial 
Orders, No. 2til, Headquarter? of the Army, November 11, 1P01, to consider and 
report n;x>n the location and distribution of military posts required for the pro]ter 
accommodation, instruction, and training of the Army as organized under the act of 
February 2, 1901, not including coast fortifications, as a jxjrninnent post tor two bat- 
teries field artillery, and necessary coast artillery, and one company of the Signal 
Corps, with completely equipped telegraph train. 

Summary of the pout an it acini*. — Officers’ quarters, D. S. 1. S. S. 26, 
also accommodations for two officers in No. 24, post headquarters; 
noncommissioned staff officers’ quarters, D. S. 3, S. S. 1: hospital 
stewards’ quarters. 1; lodges, 4; quarters of civilian employees, 1; 
■barracks, S. S. 9 (capacity, 30 to 65 men each); barracks, D. S. 5 
(capacity, 160 men each; total capacity, 1,220 to 1,265 men); post hos- 
pital, 1 (capacity, 2S patients and 16 attendants): post headquarters, 

1; assembly room, 1; chapel, 1; school and reading room. 1: post- 
office, 1; post exchange, 1; guardhouses, 6: post guardhouse, 1; 
kitchen ana mess room, 3: quartermaster and commissary storehouse, 

!; quartermaster storehouse and coal shed, 1; storehouse, 1; ordnance 
■ storehouse, 1; forage storehouse, 1; subsistence storehouses, 2; quar- 
termaster storehouse, 1; commissary storehouse, 1; veterinary hospi- 
tal, 1; post stable (old), 1 (capacity, 12 horses); quartermaster stables, 

.2, (capacity, 198 animals); shed and additions, capacity 425 animals; 
corral for transient animals, capacity 1.100 animals; cavalry or artil- 
lery stables. 5 (capacity, 353 horses); bakery, 2; bakehouse, 1; bake 
shop, 1; hcsecart house, 1; hook and ladder house, 1: temporary. en- 
gine house at pumping works, 1; coal shed at pumping works, 1; 
magazines, 2; quartermasters’ shops, 1; shops, 4: water-closets, 5; gun 
sheds, 3; granary. 1; wagon shed, quartermaster department, 1; band 
stand, 1: scale house, 1; oil house, 1; garbage cremator, 1. 

United Staten Army General Uonpilal. — Officers’ quarters, D. S., 1; 

S. S., 1; hospital corps quarters, 1 (capacity. 85 men); nurses’ building 
(female), 1 (capacity. 50); detailed men's building (capacity, 85 men); 
administration building, 1; wards, 10 (capacity, 368 beds); patients’ 
dining room, 1; patients' kitchen, 1; storehouse, 1: laundry, 1; power 
house, 1. • .i* 

■Fori Point. — Officers’ quarters, D. S., 1; S. S., 1; barracks, 1 
(capacity, 100 men); ordnance storehouse, 1; ordnance repair shop, 1. 

' Infantry cantonment, entahlinhcd in 1U02. — Officers' quarters, D. S., 
‘14; S. S., 10; bachelor officers’ quarters, 6 sets for 7 each: noncom- 
missioned staff quarters, 5; servants’ quarters, 1; band barracks, 2; 
company barracks, 24 (capacity, 65 men each); hospital and dispen- 
sary, 2; regimental headquarters and cantonment headquarters, 1; 
headquarters depot, recruit instruction, 1; office cantonment quar- 
termaster, 1; summary court and officers’ school building, 1: clerk’s 
office, 1; chapel and reading room, 1; schoolhouse, 2: exchange build- 
1; guardhouse, 2; mess halls, 3: company kitchen, 1; dining 
room, 1; company mess house, 12; oflicers’ mess hall, 2; company 
mess hall and kitchen, 1; company mess, 1: company mess hall 
and kitchen, JO; hand mess hull and kitchen, 1; .storehouse, 1; quar- 
termaster storehouse, 12; commissary storehouse, 1; bakehouse, 1; 
baud practice, room and storehouse, 1; workshops. 1; company hath' 
houses, S; officers’ hath houses, 6; prisoners’ bath house, 1. 


Method of l ii/Jifi ii q post . — Presidio, mineral-oil lamps; general hos- 
pital, electricity; post Hospital, infantry cantonment, mineral-oil lamps. 

11 aUr s if stem and tenter nu/ij'li/. — IV nter suyiply for post from veils 
at Mountain Luke, near ;lte United States Marine Hospital. Quality 
pood; quantity inadequate to meet all requirements, find connection is 
also made with the Spring Valley Water Company's mains. 

There are one 10-inch well, eight 20-inc-h wells, and one 45-inch well, 
with a combined capacity of 13.100 gallons per hour. 

Water is also pumped from the post into the reservoirs constructed 
by the engineer department at Fort Point in connection with fortifica- 
tions erected and in process of erection at that point, and also for the 
use of the troops in barracks at Fort Winfield Scotland Fort Point; 
the former, however, are vacant, except for temporary occupancy by 
a quartermaster employee as care taker. 

Water is pumped into the small reservoir direct from Mountain 
Lake for fire and sprinkling purposes, including the general hospital. 

The water for the supply of the quartermaster mule stable comes 
from an artesian well, which delivers about 100 gallons per hour. 

The water for the supply of the corrals, other than the main mule 
stable, constructed for the accommodation of transient public animals, 
is obtained from the post reservoir, the capacity of the artesian well 
mentioned being insufficient- for this puipose. 

Water is also taken from this post by the Government steamer to 
Fort Baker and. the discharue camp at A n ere 1 island, and a consider aide 
quantity- is furnished the transport tug Slocum for her own use. 

The average capacity of the plant has been 156,116 gallons for 
domestic and 74,139 gallons for fire and sprinkling purposes per day; 
but the quantity pumped for domestic uses being inadequate to meet 
current needs of the post proper, the fortifications at Fort Point, Fort 
Winfield Scott, and Old Tennessee Camp, it became necessary to con- 
nect with the city main permanently. 

Machinery at tbc pumping works; Pumps, 1 duplex Dow, capacity 
17 gallons per stroke; 2 drv-air duplex Dow; 1 Thompson & Evans 
pit, capacity S gallons per stroke: 1 Dow feed, capacity .15 gallon per 
revolution; 1 Smitb-Yaile boiler feed, capacity .33 gallon per revolu- 
tion; 1 duplex Smith-Vaile vacuum; 1 Hooker deep well, capacity 4.23 
gallons per revolution: 1 Thompson & Evans deep well, same capacity; 
2 Thompson & Evans deep well, capacity, each 2.3 gallons per revolu- 
tion; 2 Snow fuel oil, capacity, each .157 gallon per revolution. 
Boilers, 1 Risdon Iron Works 60-horsepower tubular, and 1 Union 
Iron Works SO-liorscpower tubular. 

• Tanks, 2 wooden storage, capacity 20,000 gallons each, elevation 175 
feet each; 1 wooden storage, capacity 5.01*0 gallons, elevation 7 feet; 
2 wooden settling, capacity 5,000 gallons each, no elevation; 2 wooden 
settling, capacity 3.000 gallons each. 

Reservoirs. 1 cement and brick, capacity 43S.000 gallons, elevation 
CO feet; 1 cement, capacity 112.000 gallons, elevation GO feet. At 
Fort l’oint. 1 cement, capacity 140. OUO gallons, elevation 240 feet, and 
1 cement, capacity GO, 000 gallons, elevation 100 feet. 

The water pressure between reservoir and post is approximately 45 
pounds to the inch. 

Date of first installation and original cost- of this water system is 
unknown. A practically new system was established in 1S95, and has 




cost, together with improvements and extensions since, approximately 
$51,137, . _ - _• - ; ' 

> JSetcer system . — The post is provided xvit h a sufficient sewer system, 
in good condition, draining into San Francisco Bay. Date of first 
installation and original cost not known. There have been expended 
since 1883, in extensions and improvements, approximately S24.320. 

The site of the post is well drained naturally, by a fall of 1 foot in 
20 feet. 

Cemetery . — National cemetery within the boundaries of the post 
reservation. . / ■ 

PART vn 

A Guide to Arnrjr Posts in the San Francisco Bay Area 


A Guido to Arny Posts in the San Francisco Bay Area 

Compiled by Workers of the Writers* Program 
of the Work Projects Administration 
in Northern California 

Press Relations Officer 

Headquarters Ninth 'Corps Area, United States Array 
Presidio of San Francisco 

Co— -Sponsor" 






.. 3 




.. 1 9 


.. 30 


.. 35 


.. hi 


.. 58 


.. 78 


.. 80 

Fort Winfield Scott ...80 

Fort *\mston 

.. 85 

Fort Baker ...85 

Fort Barry 

.. 86 

Fort Cronkhite ...86 

Fort Miley 

.. 86 

Xerba Buena Island ...8? 

Fort Mason 

.. 89 

Fort McDowell ...9U 

Benicia Arsenal 

.. 96 

Hamilton Field ...98 

Moffott Field 

.. 100 


.. 10U 

Military Chronology of tho Bay. Region 

.. 105 


.. HU 



John it. Cara ody, Adn.ln.istrr.tor 


Howard C. Huntsr, ctir- Comiocionor 
Floronco Earr, A3.u- ;uu:s ucrv.iaiiionor 
William F« Lawson, Admin; or i‘or l.orah«rn California 


northern California 


- 1 ~ 

Dofondoro of tiia Day Holloa 

On the strategic position of ths great landlookod liarbor of 
San Fre ncisoo Bay tho fate of this racifio Co&at has mainly dopondod, 
Tho Spanish Ifapire revealed its alertness to tho necessity of securing 
tho Bay region against Russian aggression soon after 17G0, the year 
in tiliich tho Bay was di3oovorod by tlia expedition of Portola. The 
establichnont of tho Presidio of Son PYaaoisoo in 177G was tho 
culmination of explorations by Captain pages (1772) and Captain 
Rivora (1774), who surveyed tho shoreline of tho Bay, suw tho Golden 
Gate, and penetrated the San Joaquin Valley, Ths entry of tho son 
Carl 03 through tho Golden Gate in 1775 revealed — * its occmndor. 
Lieutenant Ayala, reported to the Viceroy of Bow Spain, Don Antonio 
Buo&roll — that this harbor was "ono of tho best he had Been in those 
seas from Capo Horn up" end furthomore that it constituted "not one 
port, but mny with a e ingle entrance 

Tihon Father Pedro Font, Anna’s assistant in the founding of 
San IVanoinoo, looked down from tho cliffs overlooking tho Day 
and tho Golden Cato, ho sensed tho destiny of this harbor of harbors, 
lie wrotot "This mesa tho conrxmdor selected as the site for the now 
settlement and fort which were to be established on this liarborj for, 
being on a height, it is so oomsnding that with nu shots it can do fond 
tho entrance to tlio couth of the Jiarbor, rdiilo a gunshot away, it has 
vrator for the poople • • • w As tho standard of Carlos III was raised 
above this northornrost outpost of tho Spanish Empire, the signors of 
tho Deolamtion of Indopondonco were assembling at Philadelphia, and 
General ' nailing ton had already ascunod oomand of the Continental Amy, 




The Aray at the Golden Gate 
Defender* of tha Boy 2cgion 



Sponioh colonial settlaaont* In tha Bay region at tha beginning 
of tho nineteenth century included tho Presidio of San Franciaoo, 

Mleaion Doloroe, Mission San F.afue, the pueblo of San Jose, Ilia cion 
Santa Clara, and Mission Son does do Guadalupe, Thoso pro c porous 
oancS-cdtioe — and no re oepoolally tho rich undeveloped hinterland — 
woro a temptation to traders and adventurers. By 1000 the Bay area 
hod bogun to attract tho attention of foreign nations —» England, 

Franoo, Bussia, and finally the United State* — whose roving vessel* 
sailed with increasing frequency tin-ouch the Golden Gate, 

Under the rule of Governor Fares (1782-1791 ), the Bay region's 
apparent isolation from sphere* of international rivalry raa considered 
euffioient protection against foreign aggression. Rot until the visit 
of Captain Vancouver ' s H* H, S, Discovery to San Pranoisoo Bay in 17S2 
did the provincial go Vermont at liorrfcorey suddenly awake to tho danger 
of losing California to tho British, "I had at San Franoieco but one 
oannon, end it was out of oomission*” The Prosidio oormndanto 
(oonsanding of floor) explainsdi but ho was not excused for permitting 
Vtoocuvor and WLs officors to observo tliat Son Jose and Mission Santa 
Clara wore equally dofoncoloes, 

Viooroy Devil la Gigodo, wlron informed of thio situation, ordered 
iraoodiato fortification of the ports of Monterey, and San Franoieco Bay, 
Tho dofensoo of tho Presidio cf Son Francisco ware strengthened by the 
construction of a fort (San Joaquin) to Guard tho famous strait which 
Fnaraont half a oentury labor named tho Golden Gate, Governor Borioa 


Tho Amy at the Ooldea Cate ■ _ ( 

Defenders of tho Bay Region 2< 

(1794*1000) failed* however to taka advantage of this good bog Inning) 

for in hist aro found all tho qualities which rtado Spanioh California 

a feudal Arcadia and a political liability* "r/ith the Senorea 

Yojxiou ver, Pater Puget, and others," he boasted* "I am waging a ooirteot* 

Hone of than can beet ns over a doxen of wine** And of Vancouver's 

osocnd visit to Son Fmncisoo Bay in 1733 he caaplaoently declared* 

"He did not give him tkac to observe again certain things of which It 

woro trail t)»t he recstin ignorant*" Such wan the Governor of Alta 

California — while Spain was at war with England, France, and Russia* 

His esrople, eocordlng to Father Sul osar, vraa followed by the whit© 

population in San Jose* "Tha pooplo aro a sot of idlers* •» .Confident that 

the Contilos ore working, the settlors pass the day singing* The young 

non vendor on horseback through the roncherlas (Indian villages) 

Bolioiting tho women to irsaorality*" Of such lew vices, the canto de 

mi on (gentry) could not bo accused, but those also cared more for the 

arts of leisure than for tJse security of the land* 

The Yankee coEtaondor of the Lclia Byrd, Captain Williwa SSialor, 

In 1805 observed that the Golden Gat© was defended only "by a battery 

on which aro nounted soma brass pounders, whioh afford only the chew 

of defonaoj end tho place oould sake no resistance against the smallest 


nllitary force****" Failure to inprove t2ae fortifioationa lod, in 
1812, to tho establishment of a sottlcrasnt of Russian traders and 
hunters of coa ottor — - Fort Ro3S •— north of Bodoga Bay. Efforts 
of governor Sola (1315-1 S22) to dislodge tlio nowcenors rare not with 

«• 4 «* 

The Arty at the Qoldcra flat* 20 

Defenders of the Day Region 

interminable palaver logs and otolid rofuaale* The Presidio ooranandnnto, 
while honestly declaring that ho had neither the troops nor equipment 
to eject then, secretly one ours c® 3 trade between the Russians and the 
Bay region cottiers. 

Aft or 1825, whoa Alta California became a province of tho 
Republic of Ifexloo (which won its independence in Iturblde'o coup 
d* ctst of 1821), provioua restrictions on trade with foreigners 
were removed. Under the adrdnistrationa of the liberal Governor 
Luis Arguollo (1822-1325) and of his successor, Colcaol Jo so j,?suria 
Boheandia (1325-1831), a timber of industrious Anglo- Americans arrived 
in the Bay region and at Uontorcy. Individual traders such as Trill lea 
Hoath Davis, Jacob Loooo, Tfil lion Lcldosdorff, and Till lien A. Hichardoon 
laid tho conaarcirvl foundation for tlie port of San rranoisoo after tho 
establishment of Yorba Buena (San fronoicco) in 1335. The British firm 
of McCulloch, Hartnell & co. Yrcdcd in hid03 end tallow, and Thomas 0* 
Larkin (Uni tod States Consul at Monterey from 1344 until American 
occupation) did business with everybody while boosting California on 
the Atlantic seaboard. L'ono of these nan had active daaigns on the 
territory, though mny hoped that eventually California would declare 
its independence of Iloxioo and Join oithor the British Enpiro or the 
United States. 

Between 1830 and 1040, hoirover, Americans of a more acGrosaive 
typo bsgan to arrive in tho Bay ro^ion — trappors, bookrjoodancn of all 
sorts, and sailors deporting frora whalers and hlde-and tallcw ships. In 

- 8 - 


The Army at the Golden Gate n 

Defenders of the Bay Region “ A " 

the wales of the 3i dwell- 3ortle son Party of 1841 ©ons cthora in increas- 
ing numbers across the Siorra trails biased by ouch pathfinders as 
•the praying tothodist trapper •" Jedodiah Smith, tho Pattie brothers, 

and Joseph TJalkar, By 1840 there to re several hundred. Despite oppoe- 


ition of tho govonaaont at Uorrtoroy, these Bottlers had in the Bay region 
several powerful allies whoa they could count on for support. The 
Sacremcnto Valley was dedicated by Captain Johann Augustus Sutter’s 
colony on tho present cite of Sacramento (fortified and arnod with 12 
cannons bought from the Russians wlion, in 1841 , tiioy obondonod Fort Ross). 
Dr. John IJorsh, from his huge ranoho near Mount Diablo, spread pro-snsr- 
ioan influonoo over tho area east of t’na Bay. The puoblo of Soncaa, 
without a garrison to con its nine email oonnons or shouldor its £00 
nusloeta, vms oomandod by Don Jiiriemo G. Vallejo who, hostile to tho 
Uaxicon regime, feared only that JUaorioan annaxation night not bo accomp- 
lished by poaoeful noans. 

Conandanto Vallejo was not surprised, therefore, when on June 
14, 1040, a band of settlers led by EsoldLol liarrit ("a phonononal tobocco- 
©hesrer" ) colled upon hin to eurrondor, hoisted above tho plaro tiioir 
"Boor Flog." and proclaimed California an indopondent republic Yallojo 
and several other prisoners wore hustled fron Sonora, to Sutter’s Port. 

Tilsit irarpirod tills Boar Flog revolt was tho prosenoo in tho Sacramento 
Yalloy of ‘‘Pathfindor" John Cbnrlos Franc nt, brevet captain of topograph- 
ical ©ngirtsors in tho United S tat os /my, who had been conducting surveys 
of northern California for tho purpose of establishing an overland route 
to tho Paoifia ooaBt. Froaont was friendly toward the Bears, but remained 


Tho Arty at the Golden Gate 

Defender* of the 3ay rjogion 211 

aloof froa their activities while General Jose Castro at Santa Clar~ 
oalled on his eountryaoa to "rise on rasae, irresistible and Just," and 
sent Lieutenant Joaquin da la Torre with a force of 60 sen to put down 
the insurrootioa# After a battle betsraon these troops and the Boars* 
riflcnon near Petal una, Captain Freraoat suddenly took ooEsaand of the 
rebellion at Sonona on July 6, 1046, and narched to encase Be La Torre's 
forces at San Rafael. Finding that they had fled to redoing General 
Castro at Santa Clara, Fremont's scouts and the Boars crossed the Eny 
and spibod the disaontled guns of the Castillo do San Joaquin, whilo a 
party of Bears lod by Dr, Robert Senple ("six foot six inches tall,") 
aooording to Jacob Leoao, "and about fitoen inohoa in dicootor, droooed 
In groacy buckskin fresa neck to foot, and with a fox-nldn cap" ) raidod 
the Rudcon's 3ay Company's post at Yerba Buona end oapturod Robert Ridley, 
harbormaster of Yorba Buena, Returning to Suttor's Fort, Fremont's 
party then proceeded to oooupy Son Joan Bautista, with a detachment of 
dragoons dlspatohod by Commodore John D* Sloat, whose naval forces had 
raised the American flag over llontarey and Yorba Buena# 

Outbreak of the Tier with I'axico saved the United States my 
fKabarassnant the Ration night liave jsuffored over the Baser Flag revolt 
(prenont apparently had acted on hio ocm initiative, end contrary to the 
United S tat os govamnant’a policy of poaooful annexation), Thus tho lioroee 
of the Sonona affair, reconstituted as tho California Battalion, were 
honorable participants in Fremont's triumphal entry into Monterey, t/iiloh 
prosagod tho final coaquost of California, Ironioally onough, Lieutenant 
Fredoriok r.'alpolo of B,!L5, Colllngs-xood, flagship of Ad m iral Cojmour'o 

Tha Asny at tha Golden (mta . 

Dafendcra of tho Bay notion ♦ 212 

British naval squadron erasing off Montaray, witnessed this event 
whioh noanfc the frustration of whatever designs his go Vermont had on 
the Ihcific Coast* "A vast oloud of dust appeared at first," he declares, 
•end thenoe in Ions file merge' this wildest wild party* Franont rode 
ahead, a epare, sotivo looking t»n, with such an eyoi He whs dressed 
in a blouse and loggings, end wore a folt hat* Aftor hin cane six 
Delaware Indiana, who wore his body guard • • • • The rest, many of 
then blacker than the Indians, rode two and two, the rlflo hold by ono 
hand oorosa the pcsnool of tho saddle « • • • Tho saddles were of various 
fashions, though these and a large drove of horses and a brass field-gun 
were things tliey had picked up in California***" 

FreaMnt* s "wildest wild party" of Yankee soouta and frontier 
fighters joined Comodore Robert ?• Stcokton’s marines and prooedod 
southward to oooupy the territory whioh already had been invaded by troops 
of General Stephen W, Kearny, who had tads a forced mroh from Santa Fo, 
Mexican rooietnnoo in the Bay region and northern California apparently 
was broken, but in liovehber a foroo of 100 nea raioed by General Castro 
attached Aoarican nilitiar»n noar San Juan Bauticts* Tha liadcan troops 
employing their peculiar tactics of ouddon advance, feigned flight, 
and about-face charge — drove tho Yan'toe troops to cover. This 
ongagonont was followod on January 2, 1047, by Dofoat of a Mexican foroe 
led by ranchoro Don Fr&noisco Sanches noar Santa Clara* In this "Battle 
of the Mustard Stalks" — wiiich took plaoo in a field of nustard — a party 
of mrlncia lod by Captain vnrd iinroten fr<n Yorba Buana finally put on 
end to hostilities in tha Bay Region, Ttithln two weeks southern Cali- 
fornia bad capitulated to tho Azsorican foroes* 

The A T 2 $r a t tho Golden Cato 
Defend or » of the Bay notion 

Tho viotcry of tho United State* brought to the Boy region a 
different prospect* Here* historian Robert Glass Cl eland observes* 

"Cities wore to spring up where sloepy pueblos Imd previously stood* 
the untouched resources of tho generous oorth — it3 nines, ito forests, 
its longues of uncultivated soil — were to bo nado to serve tho needs 
of oil mankind*" Such progress came to poos, but not without a quarter* 
century of tunaoil end strife, in tdiioh tho Arcy at tho Golden Goto 
played a difficult and sagacious rolo# 

TJhllo the troops of Fraaont, Ctookton, end Koamy voro quailing 
l!cgjoan resistance in southern California, the little lianlct of Yorba 
Buona — its none shortly to be clianged to Sen Franoisoo—wus the scene 
of activities which laid tho foundation for Aosricsa silitary establish- 
Bents in tho Bay area* In tho spring of 1847, fron the transports, Forking, 
Susan Drev , Brutus, and Loo Choo, dicanbextod Colonel Jonathon Drake 
Stevonscn’s reginont of Hew York Volunteers* Arriving too late to par- 
ticipate in the conquest of California, Conapniea A, B, nod V of 
Stevens on* a regiment rrore dispatched to augnent the garrison at Santa 
Barbara* and Companies H and K wore stationed at the Sen Francis oo 
Presidio* Captain Joseph L* Folocn, tho regiswnt’s assistant quarter- 
mstor, snsuaod recponoibility for establishing and operating a dopot 
for supplies landed on the San Franoicoo waterfront free: the Loxington* 

On August 2D, 1048 Bsaddcus 11* Leavenworth, chaplain of Stovonson’o 
rogiraont-, boonoo the city’s first civil alcalde (ncyor) under American 
rule* Alroady tho wild news fron Sutter’s Uill-raco had transformed 
tho octjnolont littlo outpost of Yorba Buona into tho metropolis of tho 
Gold Rush* 

- 9 - 

th« AW at tho Golden Gate 
Defenders of tho Bay Region 


Tha hills and sand dunes lying between San Franoisoo's oluttored 
scfcarcedaro (landing) and tho Presidio sade tho /franspert of ordnance 
and havy stores impracticable, oo Captain Folsoa tms obliged to lease 
freta billion Loideadorff, pioneer San Krancisoo L'o roliant and vice- 
consul for the United States under Mexican rule, the warehouse at tho 
foot of California Ctroot* Tho establishaont of thin first United 
States Quartort»stor*s Depot north of l!onterey solved only the first 
of tho problems with which Captain Folsoa had to contend* His urgent 
appeals to Washington for supplies not available in California were 
answered in the spring of 1843, by the arrival of vessels which landed 
on the San Prsnoisoo waterfront ouch quantities of stores that he was 
at his wits* end to dispose of then* Of the Political and social chaos 
which reigned in San Prsnoisoo during the subemp. of 1848 Captain Folsoa 
declared i "The no at mortifying state of affairs prevails here* Govern- 
ment, both civil and military, is abandoned* Offenses are cumittod 
with impunity and property end liven are no longer safe* Lost night 
tho crow of tho Chill ion (sic) berk Correo rode upon their officers with 
urns in their hands, and after driving then into the cabin, the vessel 
was robbed and the non escaped up tjw Sacramento in the long boat* Uy 
office is loft with a large amount of money and gold dust in it* If it 
is possible to send a vessel of vnr hore, it should bo done at once*" 

In addition to procuring, housing, and distributing supplios, Fol3oa*o 
depot was responsible for maintaining coil oorwunication with l&ntoroy 
by noons of a pony express oporatod by quartermaster employees. The 

The Arry a i the Golden Out* 

Dofondurs of tho Day Roglcn 215 

eoaroh for supplies took the Captain and hie esi&ll staff all over tho 
Bay area* Slnoo no gowrmont boats ware provided (four or five snail 
seagoing vessels were later acquired, one of tiiloh tho barque Anita , 
was fitted with a cannon) the depot’s only facilities for water trans- 
portation between various landings on the Bay wore a few nondescript 
boats end eocnrs. 

The soldiers of Stevenson’s regirwefc, nustered out of eervice in 
the autuenof 1848 Joined tho Gold Rush# Troops of the Second Infantry 
arriving on tho transports It tn tress, Iota, Fens and liny cr.d Adull no 
from tiie Atlaatio seaboard lato in 10-18 as replacements for Stevenson* c 
disbanded regirsent likewise suecurfbed to -tho lure of the "diggings." 
Enlisted non fren the Presidio and other Garrisons of the Eay area 
headed for tho nines, and even tho troops dispatched to errost than 
frequently Joined tho do sort ore. Infact, tho increase in desertions 
left -tho partioB surveying tho Ecvada — California boundary without 
adequate escort against Indian attacks. 

The breaches of discipline and the inefficiency teposed by ocrly 
Gold Bush conditions on tho Arny, though soon corrected, wore exploited 
by one waggish officor of tho Second Infantry to the detriment of his 
nil It pry career and to the ranking of his reputation as one of the 
literary humorists of his tins. This ran lieutenant George Derby, 
bettor known by his non de plane of John Phoenix, who advocated ouch 

inprovo-wnta in military technique as tho oquijpdomt of infantry with 
popor-pota and ferocious bull-dogs and -Usa mounting of cla-pouad field 

" <i 

pioooB "Cn tho books of stout Jaokaasoo •••••pointed to tho roar* 

The Amy at the Oolden Cato 

Pofoatlaru of the Day Region 216 

Theso being fired the reooil will arouse all the natural obstinacy of 
the ordinal, who thinking he is being pushed forward, will instantly move 
•torn first, vith' incredible oolsrity, toward the oncuy," 

B» tough elonont ruaong tl» disbanded How York Volunteers, prefer- 


ring to prey upon the stable citiconry of San Fronciooo rather then risk 
the bard toil of the placers, fomod a oeninilitory bond of thieves and 
terrorists known as "Ilounds" or "regulators" who plundorod the city with a 
free hand until tnporarily dispersed by tho Vigilance Camittea of 1G51, 
However, the regiment* a motor roll carried tho nones of non distinguished 
enong the Argonauts for porfomanoo of constructive works end the aclsiovo- 
toont of notable oaroers# Besides Colonel Stevenson, the cost foroua of 
these ran wore Captain Horary H, Iligloo, founder of San Franoisoe*s fir at 
benkf Captain Francis J» Lippett, colcr»l in the First California Infantry 
during tho Civil Tar* lieutenant Edrnurd Gilbert, first editor of the novs- 
papor, the Alta California, Captain -ill 1m E, Shannon author of a 
provision in the California Constitution of 1849 prohibiting elavoryj and 
Captain Hoi son Taylor, a brigadier-general in tho Union Amy during tho 
Civil T.'ar, ISany of those non, having boon officers in tho regular Airy 
^oforc boing acsignod to Stcvonson‘8 rogiront, were instrunoutal an 
private oltisona in bringing law and order to Son Frnnoisoo out cf the 
anarchy of the Gold Rush, 

On Board tho stoanor California when, on route to San Fmcciooo, 
it touched at Ifontorey on February £3, 1G49, v.-aa Genoral Porsifcr F. 

Smith, who liad boon ordered to relieve Colonel Richard B. l5oson of his 
duties tia comondor of tliO Division of the Paoiflo* V.hsn tho California 
proceeded up to tho ^oast, to disecibark its cargo of Argonauts on tho 

l - 12 m ) 


The Amy Rt tho Golden Oat® 

Defenders of the Bay Region 217 

Son Franoieoo waterfront on February 29, aaong it* passengers were 
General Cnith, and hie adjutant. Lieutenant Trillion ?• Cherana. Thun 
were headquarters for the military otmnd for California and Oregon tran©. 
ferrod to the metropolis of the Gold Rush, and installed in tho old adobe 
Custom House on Portsmouth Square because the Preoidio offered no suit- 
able facilities. 

Hot impressed with San Franoisoo, General Smith reported that 
it was *Jn no way fitted for Comoro ial or military purposes* there ie no 
harbor, a bad landing place, bod water, no supply of provisions, an ircle* 
*»nb olimto, and it is out off froa tho root of tho oountry, wcoopt by a 
long circuit around tho southern ex t re mi ty of tho bay.* Besides, tho 
: leases were about to expire on the wareliousoa serving as tho Quartermaster • s 

] Depot and font actio rentals would mbs renewals prohibitory. For those 

reasons General Smith in Juno 1849 removed division headquarters tempo- 
rarily to Conor* ponding completion of barracks, quarters and a dopot 
at Banco is. Ihjor General Washington Seawall relieved Smith of his 
Oorriand in April, 1851| and in Ootober of the sane year. General G©awoiX*B 
succoooor, Hajor Oonoral K. A. Hitohoock, removed headquarters of tho 
Division of tho Paoifio to Baniola. 

Tho "Firct California Guard," pioneer Rational Guard organisation, 
was formed in San Franoisoo during 1G49 to put down dioordora of criminal 
oloenonto — chiofly Australian conviots known aa "sydnoy Duoko" — end 
to nr root /my end llavy dosortoroe Hubert Howo Bancroft caysi "It woo 
on artillery ocmpany but drillod also with nuskots and infantry snoVort3nts. 
In July it consisted of 41 members inurdosing to 10Q in September and on 

• IS - 

Tho A my at the Ooldsn Gats 

Defenders of tha Bay notion 218 

Septccbor 8, Gonornl Riloy oconinslonod Brary IU Eagles, Captain, TSu O.H. 
Howard and Ityron Horton, First Lta.i Hall UaMllster and Dvaid F. Begley, 
2nd Lto«j Canuol Oorry, surgoon and E, H, Hinton, Sergeant." Between 1849 
and tho outbreak of the Civil Tar 21 companies of military character were 
organised in San Eranoisco, Tholr doubtful legal status and their variety 
of uniforms mde then acre often a source of confusion than a force for 
the maintenance of order, *!n tho latter port of 1850," says John P. Young, 
"the Fashing ton Guards was formed, the oanpany which in 1851 responded to 
tho ©all of the suaioipal authorities and prevented the lyaohing of 
Purdue and Windrod by the Vigilantes, 'Em organisation only lasted n few 

The organisation of a State nilitia was necessitated by nasacres 
eomitted by hostile Indiana throughout the area of the goldfields. To 
avenge the murder of white settlers along tho Tuoluans and Stanislaus 
rivers, ©. foroa of 75 volunteers under Lhjor Janos Burney, shoriff of 
l&riposa County, in January, 1C51, tracked tha I ndians into the Siorra 
Hovada, where, affcor a four hour battle, burned their village and killed 
80 warriors, ,So carious did tha hostilities become, hewevor, that 
Governor John IfcDougal dicpatched Colonel J« Koeley Johnson with a 
battalion of 400 volunteer nilitiaoon — ■ which inoluded the noted coout 
and Indian fighter Hajor Jams D. Savage To hold the Indians in chook 
until tho arrival of United States oanaiaslonora for Indian affairs, who 
were instructed to arrange for sobtlcnont of tha hostile tribes on a 

For Ccesaisaionor 0, H, Yfogcnoroft and his staff, Oonoral Snith 
provided on escort of 121 offioers and non, fully equipped, under the 
oofctaand of Captain h. D. Keyes, Tho party procoodod by boat up tho 


Ths Arry at the Golden Get* 

Defenders o f th* Boy notion 

Saorsmnto to enter Into negotiations with ohlefa of the various tribes* 

On jjay 30, 1851, at Bii^t** Ferry, were signed the Sevan treaties which 

brought on^ end to hostilities and established the Indian reservation on 

tbs Tuolirme and the Stanislaus "for the solo use and ooouparscy of said 

Indian tribes forever •* The task of rounding up the chiefs of the lou- 

ol-uctno, the T.'o-Chilla, the Suo-cnsh, the Chappab-sino and the aago-t.erSle 

was performed by Major savage’s frontier mlliticnon, who were obliged to 

wage a otvapnign as far east as Yoscnita Valley bo fora the last of tho tribes 

tho Yosotaite and tho Chcsn-cliilla — oould ho brought under control, 

Frcn 1853, when tho nano of its oomand was changed to the Deport* 

rent of tho Pacific, until tho civil ’nr tho Amy at tho Golden Gate 

was engage^ in establishing military rocervations and fortifications for 

the defense of the San rranolooo Hay region* Under the oosnaad of hajor 

General Uovsaan 3, Clark, who ronoved Division headquarters permanently 

to tho Freoidio in 1S57, Amy engineers wore occupied in building those 

posts and fortifications which are the foundation of San Fraacisoo’e 

modern system of harbor defenses* Uork was begun sinultaneously cn tbs 

fortifications of Fort Point and of Alcatras Inland* The $500*00 «*- 

later inoroased to $050*00 — provided by Congress for those defenses. 

in 1853 also called batteries on Lias Point and on Angol Island* The 

fortifications of tho lottor, with those of Alcatras and Fort Mason on 

the Mainland, constituted the harbor’s eooond line of defense against 

a potontial onaay passing t}io fortifications of tho Golden Gate* In this 

syntoa, Aloutras — nnnod Icla de los Alo&traooa (island of the Pelioana) 



Defer. dor* of the Bay aegicsi ' 2^j 

de*i;»tod "Fort Aloatra* at San Prtvrolaoo" in 1S53, it subsequently was 
equipped with powder oagasines, supply chambers, and cisterns, constructed 
deep in the eel id rode and designed to prepare tb* island for prolonged 
•lose In the event of its becoming isolated froc* the mainland. 

Alcatrea woo the first Military post oarqrleted by the Amy on tho 
Incifio Const. Its first ocoTonding officer was Captain Joseph Stewart, 
end tho first dotaohrwnt quartered there was Company E, Third Artillery, 
During tho eboonoa of those troops in the spring of 1SS0 — when thoy 
wore dispatched to quell a revolt of Piute and Shoahcoe Indians in Kovnda 
•• tho island vas oooupiod by a detaohaent of tan eea from tho Presidio. 

At tho outbreak of the Civil Ucr, the Alcatras garrison was augmented by 
on ord nanc e detachaont of Company A engineers j end & detaohaent of First 
Dragoons (later the First Cavalry), all under the ecssaand of Eajor Uonry 
S. Burton. Tho ariaasont of Alcatras in April 1GGL. oonsistod of 64 guns 
and core than 19,000 shot and shall. 

Throughout the decade precoding tho outbreak of the Civil the 
heterogeneous population of tho Bay region was cocuoiod with the feverish 
quest for gold and with speculation in oomodities and real estate. 

During tho prevailing social, economic, and political reorganisation, tho 
Aray at the Golden Cate performed the rerorkabla feat of romining a stable 
and constructive foroo. In 1801 a majority of the oitisens of San Froncisoo 
stood firoly for tl» Union in opposition to the pro slavery and procession 
factors. Con Francisco was sufficiently strong to r»l£ the political 
sontimsnt of tho State j henoe, California contributed heavily of non, roonoy 
and Materials to the Union Causa. 

10 - 

m Aicnr at tjk ocldeh oats 
Defenders of tlwi Day Region 

At tbs outbreak of the Civil Mar there ears about 6000 of floor a 


and enlisted non of the Regular Arty stationed in California* Though the 
Bay region had demonstrated its loyalty to the Union early in the crisis* 

•out born California contained an active and powerful secessionist minority, 
which throe. tor. od the position of tlio Stats, Acting promptly on orders fren 
President Abmhna Linooln, Brigadier Gonoral £. V. Sunnor arrived at the 
Presidio of Can Francisco, April 24, 1GG1, to relievo General Albert Sidney 
Johnston as cotxvmding officer of the Division of tho Pacifioj Johnston had 
resigned fron the Amy to Join the feroos of tho Confsderoy, On April 
£8, Oeneral Sunnor roportod to the Assistant Adjutant General in TTashiiigtom 
*1 have dotominod to reinforce irrjodintely and strongly tho forte in this 
harbor, and have ordered down t}iree companies of artillery (including tho 
battery) from Fort Vancouver,,,, Uy intention is to put four hundred mon 
on Alcatros Island, one hundred and fifty at Fort Point, and plnoo t3» 
battery in the depot of Benioia, in addition to tho two infantry companion 
now there,,, I think this disposition of tho troops will,,, have tho effect 
to foreclose at once all hopes on the ;-irt of tho disaffected of thoir ever 
being able to precipitate natters hero by seising forts and arsenals,” 

The precautions having boon taken. Brigadier Conoral Cumor turned 
his attention to southern California and Fovuda Territory, Sinco no socoosion 
footion cscistod in Orogon end os thoro \ni3 little possibility of soriouo 
Indian disturbances, Large forcos wore v/ithdrewn fren the horthueat to 

roinforco garrisons at Loo Angeles and r'ort Churchill, lioanwhile* 

on April 15, Airil 17, and Fay 3, President Lincoln had iscuod calls for 

volunteers for the Union Amy, Lieutenant Bd«ard D, Baker, United states 
Senator fron Oregon and an en*<; aliforninn, on April 21 accepted an invitation 
to organise and conmond a "California, regirwnt" to be made up of former 

the jLrrr at tie orldci gate 9 0< > 

Defendora of the Bay Hogion — 

Californians living in Sow Ter 2c and I’onnsylvunis. 

Inter* in response to a awasago dispatched by the Secretary of v?or, 
duly 24* 10G1, to Oovarnor John 0* Downey of California Brigadier General 
Richard H. Orton vrotei “one full rogkaont of tea cccsponiea of infantry wua 
raised* whioh beoono tho First California Infantry, and five oonpcinieo of 
cavalry, which beoane the First Battalion of tho First California Cavalry* 
la 1863, Devon companies of cavalry wore raised mko the First Cavalry 
m full regiment of twelve companies," "fro First Regina nt, drilled by tac- 
tic ions end fiold officers selected from the flagular Amy, was assigned tho 
task of do fending tho Frontiers of Ugw llejdco and Colorado against Indian 
attacks tai invasion by Conferate Forces, 

A second tolegrea to Governor Dcwncy, August 14, 1861, resulted 
in the organisation of tho Seocnd Cavalry and the Second, Third, Fourth, 
and Fifth P.cginemts of Infantry, First cue te rod at the Presidio undar 
the oaanaad of Colonel Francis J. Lippott, this regiment, with a personnel 
of 1,061 officors and men* was assigned by units to various posts in 
California, Oregon, end v ashing ton Territory, ohiefly to rolicvo troops 
of the regular Amy, Tho Third Infantry Roginant of California Volunteers, 
with a roster of some 1,600 offioors and men, was organised at Stockton 
and Bar.ioia by Colonel Patrick E, Conner* Its speoifio duty was to guard 
the central overland route fron l.'avada eastward, Tho Eighth Infantry, 
the lost California volunteer roginont matered into Fodoral oorvioa 
(1004) for 12*3 Civil Y/ar, had a personnel of 060 and was cowraandod by 
Colonel A, L« Andorsonj eight of Its ten ocaapenioB wore stationed at Fort 
roirrfc, Alcatrac, •‘■ngol Island, and Bonioia, 

Thb Air nr at rnc golden oats n * 

Defenders of the Bay Region “* 

In all, 16,231 troops wars raised in California during the war* 

When they were mustered in 16GS., many of the officers nod men rerainad 
in the earvioe of the regular Amy# Although they relieved seasoned troopa 
in the dooieive campaigns of the Onion Artsy, their chief eorvioe to tl»e 
Nation consisted in their defense of the vast western frontier# They cub- 
due d bonds of hostile Indians, kept open the vital mil end travel routed 
through the West and Southsrsat, protected the lives and proporty of plonoor 
settlers, and prevented the Confederacy froa obtaining control of Nevada, 
Arisons. Territory, and California# 


The defense of the western frontier oontinued to be the chief ob- 
jective of the Division of the raoifio during the Indian campaigns of the 
seventies end eighties# During this period tlse West waa settled, rail- 
roads and telegraph lines wo re built, and numerous Indian tribes voro 
removed to reservations in Aritona, Colorado, Nevada, Washington, and 
Oregon# Despite the governments policy of peaceful resettlement, the 
Apaohe, Ifojuvc, and other warlike tribes abandoned their old hunting- i 
grounds reluctantly and retaliated for their loo go a with frequent mseooroo 
of Isolated settlers# "The constant wail### about the killing of oitiaona 
and oteollng their stook,” Brovet ISajor General George Crook, ocmmnder of 
the Department of Aritona, reported to tho ran Franolsoo Presidio In 1G73, 
"is hoort ronding.#... In tho norm of humanity can not nonothing bo done 
followed this appeal, resulted in a suppression of these hootilitiaej and 
the captured chiefs of novoral tribes wore incaroeretod at Aloatroe and 
Attgel Inland# 



Defenders of tho Day Region 

One of tho bloodiest of the eo Indian asnpoljpia was tho Uodoo Tear of 
1873* Revolting from their confineraent on the Klamath River Reservation# a 
bond of about 70 Kodooa under Captain Jack returned to tho tribe’s old 
territory In the northeast corner of Californio# From this natural strong- 
hold of desolate lava beds they beat off a dotaohnont of troopa stmt to 
subdue tiicn. Reinforcements fren t }» Coast Artillery diapatohod from tha 
Presidio of San Francisco likewise failed to blast them from their natural 
fortress where, "like ants in a sponge , " they took a heavy toll of a force 
far greater than thoir oca* Booking a settlement of hostilities, Brigadier 
General Edsnrd R* 3* Conby, then in command of tho Division of tho Pacific, 
arrived from Tho san Francisco Presidio end, with throe of fcis officers, 
entered into a parley with Captain Jack under R fla-e of truoe* These pro- 
ceedings were interrupted by a fusillade from the Uodocs, which killed 
General Cahby and his aides* The troopa then attacked with such ferocity that 
tha Indians wore driven from the lava, bods into the open, oo untry* They were 
not yet defeated, however* In tha •'Thomas ISoasaoro" whioh followed, the 
Kodocs routed tho troops with disastrous lossoo* Finally reinforced with 
Companies K* and 0* of the Twelfth Infantry, and aided by a Modoo deserter 
who led them to Captain Jack’s stronghold, the Coast Artillery detaohnent 
was victorious in a battle at Dry Late, 15ay 10, 1373* r 

As the Army’s base was remote from tho soone of the Indian campaigns, 
the continuous troop movements to and from tho areas involved, either for 
reinforcement or for relief of frontior garrisons, tenanted the normal 
peacetime routine with a martial background* Improvements in ordnance end now 

- 20 - 


Do fen dor* of t lie Bay Region 2 « 5 

problems of coast da fans* brought changes to the I'roaidio, Angsl Is Iced, 
and Al entree. The latter, boooning obsolete as a harbor do fees* ablest 
»odem guns and war chips of steel, mn f^ad'oally tromfiraad into a. die* 
olplinary barracks i not until 1907, however, was it designated the Pacific 
Branch of the United States Military Pricon (Fort Leavenworth, Kansas)* 
Trensforrod in 1933 to the Doparbaont of Juatioe, "The Rook" today is used 
as a Federal prison for tlie no at hardened and dangerous criminals. 

TIjo Division of the pacific was abolished on July 3, 1091, and the 
vast territory under its original Jurisdiction was divided into throe 
equivalent units i The Doportnant of Arisona, the Department of tho Columbia, 
and the Dep&rfcaant of California* The headquarters for the latter remained 
at the Presidio of San Francisco* 

The Grand marshal of tbs brilliant Military parade that inouguarted 
the Midwinter Fair of 1094 in CJoldon Gate Park was General John IT. Dickin- 
son, wi>o with his cides on bardscoo ctooda prancing to martial music, lod 
the cavalcade of troops through the min oonoouree of the exposition. Bo- 
hind Color.ol V.'* E* Shaft or and his staff, in oorvioo uniforms' and with shin- 
ing sabres, ruoblod tho cannon and caissons of Battorioa D and F, Fifth Ar- 
tillery* end following those cans four troops of tlie Fourth Cavalry, "riding," 
ro ported tho Gan Franc i coo Chrortlole, "with absolute prooislon in the coluan* 
All the o' large riddon by tho horcaaoa of Troop I wore Gray, those of Troop 
C wore hr own. Troop K»3 steeds wore black, and tho non of B Troop rode hand- 
sotie bays*" Tho full-dress helraot laid boon replaced by tho forage oap, and 
eaoh rider rore over his corvioo blouso a regulation cavalry caps whoso pinned— 
book o errors revealed & brie) it yellow lining, Behind tho cavalryaon marched 
tho Gooond Brigade of the Motional Guard, Colonel McDonald of tho Gooond 

- 21 

the ma at tie; oolde*i oats 226 

Defenders of tho Day Eegioa 

Artillery temporarily in oonsaand, "hi* limed late esoorfc being non of tho 
Signal Corps i mrohing on foot with drmm oabres." Troop* of the Seoond 
Artillery* the Fifth Infantry deginent, end a E aval pesanro detochnont procodod 
tho Grand Any Veteran Guard and delegation* of patriot!© organisations that 
brought up the roar. 

The eminence of war with Spain early in 1898 caused tho Secretary of 
war to order* on April 25, tho Mobilisation of tho Fourth Cavalry at the 
Prosldio of San Francisco for duty in tho Philippine Islands. Simultaneously, 
President KcKlnloy called for the raising in California of a suffioitnt numb or 
of volunteers to fern two reginento and two battalions of infantry and four 
batteries of heavy artillery. 71 ie First Infantry and two light batteries of 
tho Third Artillery already had boon transfer rod from tho Presidio garrison 
to stations at Sow Orloon* and Chiolounauga. Coast defenses throughout the 
Department of California were cade ready for any emergency! "close and hearty 
oo -operation for effective defense at all tinea" was the order Issued to post 
OoesaendorB. At the Presidio* Colonel 11. P. Hiller was plaoed in command of 
the harbor defenses of San Frar.o isoo* "For this important duty ho had seven 
small batteries of artillery, aggregating 25 offioera and <118 non to 
nan tho modern guns then in position! but he was cm powered to concentrate 
them far instruction* and to gradually prepare tho way for introducing end 
rapidly enoinilating additional troops when they. should become available." 

Training facilities at tho Prooidio*a Camp I'orrica woro adequate for 
tho 5,000 volunteers from California, Oregon, and rachington that acsonblod 
here early in Kay, 109G. Tno rapid arrival of additional reoruite fresa 
other T.'ostom States, however, made naocoo&ry tho eatabliclnorrt of a canp 
cutaido tho rooorvation. It soon was named Ctcap Uerritt, in honor of liajor 



Defender* of the Bay Kegion *“ 

General Keeley Eorrltt. This emergency cantortnent «u adjacent to the 

Presidio* a southwestern boundary nonr tho present inter section of Lake street 

end Arguollo Boulevard, On Hay 17, Brigadier General Jane a Otie arrived to 

assures connond of the expeditionary forooo and established hi* headquarter* at 

Canp Merritt, li^jor General Korritt arrived on ISay 30 to take cocrand of 

troops for the Philippines until his departure for Manila on Juno 29, '.vhec, 

on July 15, Brigadier General Otis also sailed for Manila, the oonnend of 

all troopa intended for the rhllipinns reverted to t!ajor General ISorrion, 

TJje location of the site of Corn Merritt was severely critioized by 

General Uorrian, D’-s*ing the summer of 1898 there were 926 cases of measles, 

pneumonia, typhoid fever, and spinal meningitis in Canp Merritt *s Division 

Hospital (pairs of Ponte ploood end to end on the sandy ground) and in tiio 

nearby Korina and FTenoh Bospitalsj of these, 72 were fatal. On July 21, 

patients of the Divieion Hospital were removed to new barracks in the Presidio 

where more sanitary conditions prevailed and adequate nodical attention oould 

be provided, a, according to ISajor IValter A, Dumas, the volunteers 

at Canp Merritt "marohod daily to Golden Gate Park for drill on the roads 

there • , , « After departure of the regulars, three of four regiments of 

tho voluntoors noted within the Presidio reservation. The Twentieth Kansas 

Voluntoors (numbering 1,400 officers and non on arrival) went into cenp near 

tlie present site of tho Lotternan Hospital end drilled on parade whore tho 

present parking area la in front of the hospital," . Thus was orgunired and 

trained ihs Philippine Expedition- which enbarkod from the Army’s Transport 

Docks in .’he autuan of 1898, During a oix-conth period more than 30,000 

troops woro dlspetc)*»d from Bay Hegion Army poets fnr sorvioo in the 

Jhilippinec, Hawaii, and Alankaj at Canp Merritt alone, before it was 

» S3 


Do fend or a of tho Day Region '* ^ O 

abolished on August ZG, 1090, 4,00 volunteers were oonoentratod at one 

tins* Cut of the Spanlab-Anorican rw cnerged tho Thirtioth Infantry and 

the Sixth Coeat Artillery. 

On Kerch 11, 1030, the State of Hevada had boon attaoiied to the De- 
partment of Callfomiaj and on duly 12 the Hawaiian Islands, annexed -to the 
United State a on duly 7, were placed under its jurisdiction. Thoae otruot- 
uml changes in tho Army’s organisation on tho Baoifio Coast were consolidated 
on duly 1# 1211, by establishes nt of tho Woctarn Division, embracing tho De- 
partment of California end tho Department of the Columbia. tilth tho croation, 
on February 6, 1313 of a separata Department of Hawaii, the v.ostam Division 
boost* tho T5eatorn Department (including California, vrashington, Oregon, and 
Hcvada) with headquarters at tho Presidio of San Franoisoa. 

At Stl6 a*tu, on April 18, 1303, San Franoisoo was shaken by an oart'» ' 
quake. A fire ttot was to burn for four days end almost destroy tho city 
broke out ehcrtly aftonmrd. Conor el Frederick Funston, commanding general of 
tho Department of California — end temporarily in oerrend of tho Pooifio 
Division in tho absence of iiajor Genorol A. VV. Greely — immediately ordered 
Colonel Charles Horris, Artillery Corps, Prooidio, to report with hie entire 
OoEsaand to tlio city’s Chief of Police at flPortsnouth Square. Another non sage 
was cent to Captain K« L. walker, Corps of S-.gineers, at Fort Hnoont freex 
there the first troops wore narohod to tho Pholon building with orders to 
patrol Far hot street and maintain order. JJoanahilo, tho Amy’s tug Siooun 
was dispatched to Fort HoDov/oll, Angel Island, with orders for the Twenty- 
eooond Infantry, Colonel Alfred F.aynoldo, oormonding, to proceed to San 
Franoisoo. Uoro troops arrived fron tho presidio — cavalry, coast artillery 
arrvad and equipped as infantry, fiold artillery troops mounted on buttery 

ms Ann at colder gate 

Defenders of tiie Boy Region 


horses* These nixed detaofanant* ruocoea fully kept the tens of thousands of ref- 
ugees coving out two b looks ahoad of the advancing flames* Before 10 o'clock, 
the troops from Fort KoDowell end Fort Itiley had arrived, bringing the total 
of regulars on duty to 1,700, In cooperation with the polio®, thoae troop® 
maintained order, guarded tho Treasury and iSLnt Buildings, and helpod fire- 
men with tho hones until thooo wore rendorod useless by foiling water pressure* 
Obtaining huge quantities of dynamite by tugboats from tho California 
Powder T.'orka at Pinole, tho troops under command of two Art 11 lory Corps 
officers begun blasting away buildings from tho path of the flames. The ter- 
rific explosions aroused nroors among the frightonod populaoe that tho city 
was being aubjeotod to an art ill ary bombardment* Though dynamite proved in- 
effective against steel structures, it demolished mansions along tho oust 
side of Yon Bess Avenue and save from ruin the western section of the oity* 

Vbile the fire in the downtown area burned itself exit, the Array was 
faood with tho task of providing aid for tho 800,000 refugee®, who v/ero 
huddled, hcmoless and without food, in parks and other areas unscathed by the 
flames* They were given all the rations, tents, and blanketo on hand at the 
Bay Region 'my post®. As supplies poured in from all over tho Ration, they 
were distributed under the supervision of Kajor C. A* Dcvol, Depot Quart or- 
maotor, and lUjor C. R. Erauthof f of the depot occniccary* Th® siok from 
many oity hospitals, as well as thooo injured by the disaster, woro cent to tha 
/rray'o general hospital at the Presidio. Tho prosidio's refugoo orenp wau a 
model for othors ostabliahod througliout the city* According to JJajor Ganeral 
Fun o ton's aocount of t)io disaster, suffering was reduced to a minimun among 
tho rofugoca, roliof was systematic and adequate, and the only note of violence 
woro coeaalttod by eolf-oonstitutod vigilantoa* 

Defenders of the Bay Boglon 


Peacetime activities of t}» tray at the Golden Gate during the decade 
preceding the outbreak of the World 'nr partook of that element of pageantry 
for which San Franoiaoo hae always boon renowned* For the visit of President 
Till lima H* Taft in Ootobor, 1911* tho First and Second Battalions and the 
bond of the Thirthieth Infantry provided an eaoort from Oakland to San ?ranol3oo* 
Regarding the visit' in 1910 of His Imperial Highness Prince Too of China, ito-Jor 
General Eiosaaa H* Barry, than in oaasaad of the Kestern Department, r ©ported 
to the Adjutant General of the Amy in v-nshington* "The Prinoe ©ad party *••• 
boarded the "Soloun" and procoodod to the Amy Transport wJiarf, arriving about 
lOtOO a*ra# Here the party was received with all honors by an osoort consisting 
of a battalion of infantry* a battery of field artillery, a troop of cavalry, 
and a battalion of bluo Jackets Tran, the Eaval Training Station at Uorba Buena 
loland, Procodod by a platoon of mounted polioo, the oooort, follcnvod by tho 
entire party in carriages, "marched tlsrough the city’s main streets to the 
Palace Uotol, At the I’anosa-Pacific mternation Exposition of 1915 *— 
dosignod to colobrato the o depletion of the Panama Canal, built by the toy's 
Engineers Corps under/l&vjor Viillioa Sibsrt — the idlitary forces of 
the Bay rogion were conspicuously represented* "liilitary parades, reviews, 
dedication of cites, ground-breaking ceremonies, osoort of visiting dignitaries 
* * * on all these ocoasion3 the Presidio and its soldiers were in evidence * * * 
leading color to tho eoano* Visitors wore invited to attend target practice 
of ooast dofanse guns, drills, the oxplosion of submarine nines, and every 
routine post aotivity*" 

Suoh vra.3 the eoraewliat gay and brilliant proludo to another call to ams 
which denonotrutod again- Army’s ability to transfora its peacetime routine 
into preparation for national dofonoo* The entry of tdis United States into 
tho world Viter early in 1917 arousod t)io Array in tho Bay h«£ion to activity 

- 20 

Do fen dors of the Bay Region 


rwainisoont of the stirring days of *98. 

Eimultaneoualy with the declaration of war on Germany on April 6, 1917, 
the Proeldia and all Bay region Amy poets wore put on a full war basis. As 
the Rational Ouard troops were mobilised, the rreeidio took on the appearance 
of a hugo concentration camp. The San Franolsoo Chronicle of April 10 reported* 
*3w 2nd and 5th Infantry regiments are now fully amod and equipped to the 
last nan, and are meeting the demands of the 6ervioe like regulars. Those 
units not on dotuohsd sorvioo or being bald under the protection of the city, 
are still plugging away on the drill field. The awkward squads srs not 7 * cup plied 
with rifles and the rapid' progress being made by the recruits, under war otinu- 
lua, has been tho cause of surprise and gratification to both their own and 
regular Army offioors." 

Early in kay, the Officers* Reserve Training Corps, under tho oosunand of 
lieutenant Colonel Fred W. Sladen, began the soleotion of 2,500 men from the 
5,000 applications for enrollment received fren California. By July the pre- 
liminary training of these cadets in closo ordor drill, taotioa and regulations 
had given way to combat praotioe in trench warfare, the effective uso of tho 
bayonet, lumd grenades, and maohina guns. 

In August, Canp Fremont was established -among the live-oak groves 
down tho Peninsula near Uanlo Park, and troops fresa Oregon and California 
Rational Guard, and rooruito drafted late in 1917, tho Twelfth Infantry under 
Colonel Alfred Aloe was stationed at Comp Fremont in tho spring of 1910. 

Though the order to strike thoir tonts to Join tho A. E. F. cane too late for 
them to see service in Franco, the men of tho Twelfth Infantry departed from 
Camp Fremont with a sense of high youthful resolve* "T;*.t night was the nearest 
thing to a oar nival that the Regiment liad over witnessed. The myriads of In- 
candescent lights whioh dangled from tho wires over the empty tent frames shed 

• £7 - 


Defenders of the Bay nation 

ft nellcw radiance over the group* who gather od in tha streets and Bang the 
Bong* that had aooDod to go along with drill. Hover had wo sung Over tfwre 
with suoh enthuaiaaa • • • Kevc-r before l»d the song, Thoro’a a Long, Long 
Trail Beaut so ouch to us I Eow and then tha night would eona a* day in tha 
intense white light of a flare* Aa the bright radiance spent itself and tho 
Ala outlinos of the notientnrily rovcalod oaks were lost in tho obeourlty of tho 
night, the hiss of a rooket would riso above the nunauro of tho cenp and -the 

B3tocrlike projoctilo would dosoribo its fiory course across the dark canopy 


overhead* Tho Signal Platoon was oolebrating with it3 expendable firo-worka." 
This roginont — whose aotive history bogino with the v nr of 1812 — served 'un- 
der Brigadier General trill ian 3* Graves during the expedition to Seberia in 

The United States fumy, in tho Bay area and throughout the vest during 
the two decades following tho end of the World War, laid tho foundations for 
the defense of the Paoifio Coast in terns of nechcnisad warfare, contributed 
to the conservation of huiaan and raterial rosourooa, and pionoored in tho 
devolopcaont of now facilities for ocoaunicution. 

Inaugurating the darvolopcont of civil aviation, Amy airplanes, dur- 
ing 1920, flew 470,035 nilea over nino fire-patrol routes in Calif orrAa, 

Oregon and mshington. By 1225 the Amy ,’ir Corps Imd undortakaa the air- 
noil service across the nation inaugurated by private oorriera in 1920i and, 
on Juno SO, 1927, Lieutenants Lootor llaitland and Albert nogonbergor piloted 
a tri-csotorod Amy Fokkcr fron Oakland liunioipal Airport on tho first flight 
fresa tlio Anorican minland to Hawaii. In 1934 tho /my transport hi /cunrio 
transported oupplioo and personnel to establish the now base at F&irbanks, 
Alaska. The Amy’s QuartoraaBtor Corps, during tlia years 133C-39, built the 

■ - 28 


Do fsnders of the Bay Region 2*^3 

$7,000,000 Saeroasnto Air Depot, which provides ocsnplete paitrfconanoe faoili- 
ties for the Oenerel Headquarters of the Air Corps in northern California. 

Since the Civil «3hr the Engineers Corps hud been extensively en gagod 
in improving the harbor facilities of the Day area. During tl» 1030's its 
achievements included the construction of Treasure Island in San Francisco 
Day, the building of Hordlton and lioffcrfct Fiolds and nirvaroua municipal air- 
ports, and advisory participation in the planning and oonpletion of tho two 
Great bridges across Son Pronoisco Bay. Projects of the Engineers Corps for 
inprovamant of the harbors of San Francisco, Oakland, Richmond, Redwood City 
end Bodoga Boy — dredging of ship ohonnele, rmovnl of nuaorous rocks and 
- shoals, widening of estuaries — constantly ere caking acre navigable the 
Port of San Francisco and its inland waterways. 

Since 1332 the military defense of the Pacific Coast has been an as- 
signed fund ton of the Fourth Field toy, consisting of troops stationed in 
the Seventh and Hinth Corps Areas, which took over this responsibility from 
the hinth Corps Area oocraand. Tho national Guard, Reserve Officers* Corps, 
and Cifcicons* Military Training Camps will be able to provide, it la beliovod, 
tho Amy in tho Kinth Corps Area with tho necessary nuolei oapablo of absorb- 
ing the third component of the national Amy oolled up for training under 
defense legislation enacted by Congress in 1940. This reserve of manpower, 
working in conjunction with tho Rogulcr Amy, tho fodoralizod Katioml Guard, 
and tho Davy, should provide adequate protootion against invasion for tlio 
Bay region and tho entire paoifio Cccst* 

• 29 


Th* Artiy at t ha Goldan Gata 



SO ~ 

OEIE-TAL urcnuvnou 

The ProBldio of San Francisco haa boon a military post since it 
was funded. Today it la tho location of not only the Foot of tho 
Presidio and tho haa station of tho 50th Infantry, but also of the Head- 
quarters of tho Fourth firry and of tho ninth Corps Area. Tiio cu winding 
of floor of the Harbor Dofonsos of San Franc in oo lias hia hoadpuurtoro cc 
Fort Ti'infiold Scott, a post on tho ires idle ronorvntion unaor t ho juris- 
diotion of /jny and Corps Area Jwadquartorfl, but not of Presidio hood- 

Main Ttitranoo * Lyon and Lombard Sta*, San Francisco. 

Hours of /dr.isBiont 7 A. I!. - 8 P.M, (daylight hours ) 

Streetcars t ''D" and "E* cars to Presidio Post Station day and night on 
Varying sonedul*, Faro 6^« 

Bu3so3t Amy-opo rated bussos run botwoon Pro3idio Post Station and Fort 
VlnfieVd Scott from G*15 a.n. to 12*30 A.IU on 30-nixrata schodulo, Faro 5/. 

Traffic "o-nlatlcns* Speed licit on reservation 20 n.p.h.f 10 R.p.h, at 
'i'ntorccci i era «' i'-ar^inr; only in dasignutod areas, Military fomationa and 
Borchin;;; troopo have ri'jvt-of-ssay at ail tines, Ihtcossivo uco of homo, 
uso of cut-out# or other noisy contrivances prohibited. Violators subject 
to fines, 

Sl nhtsoelng Tours * Busses leave Cray lino Depot, 701 liarket St., San Fran- 
cisco , eovoraTinjooB dally (reservation on itinerary). 

Prohibited* Possession of fircorr.s, uso of coEcras, sketching, note— taking, 
plcnicing, fishing, picking of flowers and planto. 

Goner al Po-nlatlona * Doga admitted only on loach. Civilian pedestrians 
pemittod to nail: on all paths end roado except doainnatod restricted aroua. 
Soliciting of any kind allowod only on written pomission of post adjutant. 


Th a Presidio of San Prenoisoo 

Am on outpcit of acplre under throe flees* the Presidio of San 
Francisco io one of the oldest of the IJation'e military rosorvationaj exoopt 
for a brief interval — 1046-47 — its long succession of changing garrisons 
boa stood guard over the Golden Oata oinoo the first year of tho Anarioon 
Bevolutlonary 'Her* this groat nod or n post of the Unitod States Array hoe 
been a headquarters for nilitary cccnands defending tho territory wont of 
the Kooky liountaina since 1857* Sinoo the Spani ah-Anorloan TJar it has dir- 
ected garrisons that guard United States interests in Alaska txA tho Panama 
Canal Zones* in tho Hawaiian Islands* in China and tho Philippines* £1 Presidio 
do San Francisco ( tlie oriaod outpost of St* Rranoie ) tho lor goat nilitary reser- 
vation within -tho linits of an Anorican city, occupies 1*642 aoros •— apprexinato- 
ly the original 3*000 vuras laid out by Colonel Juan Bautista do Ansa in 1778 — 
on the northernmost tip of tho San Francisco Peninsula* 

From tho original quadrangle of crude barracks, chapel* and conandancla 
(headquartoro) on whioh construction was begun in tho eicscor of 1778 by the 
first Spanish garrison, with tho aid of Colonel Aura's imi grout sottlors end 
tho crow of the San Carlos * has developed tho modem post, its hundrod-odd 
buildings occupying in no at but unconventional arrangement that "mesa of great 
extent* smooth, and inclining a llttlo toward tho port," doooribod by Father 
Padro Font* This mccft today is a vroodod tract of coastal plain, enolo3od on 
tho couth and vast by a curved and rugged ridge which extends from the reser- 
vation's eastern boundary at Lyon Street to the ocoan on tho west* Pram tho 
irregular northern Sloped of thiQ rid ^° tho Presidio's min oatabllolmonts aro 
built across rolling land to the south shore of the Goldon Gate, v/hioh rises 
abruptly at tJia northwestern corner of tho reservation, forming a natural 
anohorago for the Golden Goto Bridge* In tho niddlo of this fholtcrod table- 
land stand tho buildings of tho Vain Tost* Obooure among the oonoroto, etona. 

-32 - 

The Proeidio of Con Francisco 


•ad wooden structures — whoso faces of oreea-color®d stucco or light yellow 
paint eynteraetically or* renewed — are redwood Barkers indicating the sites 
of tho orig inal pootj of the troop enoaispoents of the Civil, Spanish— American, 
and World 'vnrsi and of other landrarks in ths Presidio *s history# r'rer?.e 
•truotunos housing the poat*o cany dopartnonts stand in ooupect order beside 
trinding paved roads naaod for nilitaty heroes of Spanish and latdLoan California 
and of the United States# Pains, acacias, eucalyptus trees, and fire shade 
sidewalks bordored by green clipped turf# In the eteep-eided hollows and 
ravines, sane of them overgrown with groves of t all eucalypti, are buildings 
olad with ivy, oottagos surround od by wido groan lawns, and old-fashioned 
gardens behind trin boxwood hedges# On tho slope of the ridge of hills south- 
east of tho XJain Post stand tlo red-brick C olonial-otylo barracks of t!» West 
Cantonueufc, thoir red slate roofs and tho yellow franc cottages of warrant 
officers stand out against tho heights# Tall eucalypti, high on tho southwest- 
ern slop®, fora a background for tho rod-brick and concrete officers* quarters of 
Infantry Torraoe which is laid out in a "3" formtion about a lew oontour of 
the slope, overlooking tho Vain Post, the Ooldon Gate, and tha wide expense 
of tho B*y# Loss epeotooular are tho vie ws fresa tho old barracks of I»st Can— 
tomant, fron the now of floors* quarters near Lincoln Boulevard, and frees other 
quarters on host Terraco — tile^oofod conorote otruotures of two stories 
arranged in a Eorucirolo about tlie rin of a shallow valley between tho min 
boulevard and Suanor Avonuo# 

Southward frees tho Tain Post, Arguello Boulovord winds up over tho rin 
of hills to intorcoot Jackson Stroot# Up fron tho concrete "clover loaf" of 
tho Ooldon Gate Bridgo approach, tho wido ortorios whioh hin with traffio 


The Presidio of San Franoiaoo 


land either through the now 1, 300-foot tunnel under the Presidio Golf Llnko, 
boil^in 1940 tdth BtA fu A, or out above the preoipitous fir-clod won torn 
shoreline of Fort T? Infield Scott, whore the white surf rolls up on Poker's 
Beach, and crashes on the rooks below the site of the Spaniards' old Castillo 
de San Joaquin, The bo pavod highways — Lincoln, Pork-Presidio, and Arguello 
Boulevards — are the modern derolopcwnt of that din and winding trail which 
In tbs days of the padres and the cabal loroa led from tho Presidio across 
arroyoa and sand dunes to Hi scion Dolores, 

. Despite certain restrictions imposed because of the poet's military 
functions, the Presidio is on attractive publio pork, with a background rich 
in his tor io Interest, Across its Parade Ground, where modern troops in olive 
drab pass in review, once mrohod Spanish soldiers in leathern amor and raggod 
Mexican veterans, ill -paid and no gloated by their governments, who maintained 
their prolonged and solitary watch beside the Golden Gate, TThero oix>o the 
Oxcarts rollod over sandy trails, where passed in clouds of dust the cavalry 
troops of vanished garrisons, the Presidio's long trains of torpeulin-oavered 
trucks transport to and from the reservation the motorised infantry which 
today constitutes a major force of tho Amy at tho Golden Cato, Today's 
Presidio is a place whore soldiers off duty stroll with oivilion friends, where 
orderlies hurry betwoon units of tho post, where amod sentries supervise 
guardhouse details in bluo fatigue uniforms, whoro sleek yellow busses roar up 
winding roads and ovor the dark-green rim of hills. And this i3 consomrsatod, 
in tho Snn Francisco of which tho reservation is a part, that destiny which 
Father Font foresaw from its sito in 1776, IIo wrote in his diary tlmt one 
"soos a largo part of the port and its islands, as far as tho other aide, the 
mouth of the harbor, and of the sea all that the sight can take in as far as 

• 84- 



the Frealdio of San Franoieoo r * n 

C* »J 

beyond the far rail one a *.* 2 thick that if it could be veil settled 
like Europe there would cot be anytJiing sore beautiful in all the world for 
it hae the best advantages for founding in it a sort beautiful oity, with all 
the conveniences desired, by lend as well os by sea, with that harbor so re* 
markable and so spacious, in which say bo established shipyards, docks, and 
anything that sight be wichod. Thin ssaa the oarsnander selected as t3» site 
for tho now octtlanant and fort 


TJhan Antonio Uoris da Euoaroli y Urusa, Viceroy of Sow Spain, author- 
ised Colonel do Ansa in 1774 to establish in the Port of San Fronoisoo ° certain 
Sign of defense* to indicato that It belongs to his ttvjoety," he was advocating 
tho Spanish fom of tho Reman praosidiin (garrison), the last of four estab- 
'liehcd -to maintain dominion of the Crown of Castile over Alta California* How- 
ever, this greatest cf Spain’s vicorogal representatives in the now world had 
more in nind for the proposed defenses at Sen Pranolsoo than the usual duties 
performed by the presidios of ilonteroy, Santa Barbara, and San Diego — duties 
and English visitor onoo described as "to guard the Missions, and the priests 
in civil icing the Gentiles, as tho Indiana were called. 0 More threatening 

to Span! ah inpo.-ialioxa than ary danger froa the local "Gentiles” wore the 
potential designs on Alta California of Phglaud, France, and Russia* To estab- 
lish a presidio was not alone ouffioient to preserve tho far northarn frontier 
of Alta California* Tho land and tho Bay whioh had boon explored by Tortola, 
Fagoo, and Rivora had to bocauio tho site of niaaiona and civil cottier wilts if 
.this vital and vulnorablo area vaa not to bo lost to a foroign pewor* Further- 
taoro, tlm projected colony had to bo conaeotod with How Spain by u route loss 

• 55 •» 

TSZ ABUT A? rtt 3 OLTO? OATS 240 

the Presidio of San francisoo 

baser d out than that already established by sea* 

Consequently* on October 22, 1775, Ansa lad northward Arena the Presidio 

of Tubao in Sonort provlr«oe the expedition that founded the Praai^io of Pan 

Frsnoloao. (r.o hunfred ar.d nir.ety-throe persona, nainly soldi ere with their 

wires and children, equipped with every neosssity, and bringing with then- 

SX'O head of oattle, w.rohed across core than a thousand riles of desert and 

mountain and arrived at Ucnterey on liarch 10, 1778, On !£*roh 25, accompanied 

by Lieutenant iloraga, Father Font, and 11 soldiers, with previsions for 20 

days. Ansa loft tha Presidio of '-‘onteroyj following the routs of Kiw# md 

Father Palon, he encamped near fountain Lake on the acmlag of iiaroh 27, 

The next nornin^ the party proceeded across the high ridge of the future 

Presidio reservation to Fort Point end -th^ro erected a wooden cross. At 

the foot of this oross buried a record of his explorations on the 

San Francisco Peninsula, After selecting the adjacent tableland for the 

Presidio reservation, bo led hie party across the Band dune* to the site 

he ohose for the new nisaica to he dodioated to St, Franois of Assisi, 

Fros here he returned to yenterey, On April 14 he departed for Sow Spain, 

loavin- the grateful settler# he had led to Alta California, 

According to Father Pont, both the Colonel and Lieutenant Por* ~n had 

been plceeod to find "a great quantity of timber and firewood, plentiful 

water in several springs or lakes, abundant land for raising cropa* on the 

oxtrealty of tfca Sen Frar.olaeo Peninsula, The tsek of establishing too 

new outpost was loft, however, to Captain Fernando Blvora y Uonceda, since 

Anca was obliged to return to l^exioo. And Rivera, the eotinjr Governor of 

California eiaoe the dlsoovory of San Francisco Pay, had been opposod to 

tho extension of the provinoe north of y'onteroy. 



ihs jlssit at rv.?. cntr-ra cate 

The rpsoldio of San Franoiseo 

Ylooroy Bucarell, known for his tenacity and energy* wrote •to Ansa and 
Mttrt that they had acted improperly In failing to found do f enow a on Sen 
Franolcoo Bay, Finally* Rivera was persuaded to change hl> Kind* and on 
Juno 17* 1773* Lieutenant Lora*, a under orders froea the Governor left 
J£ontwr«y with "a aerseant, two oorporalt* and ton aoldicra, all with thoir 
wive a and families except the Contender, who had left hla in Sonora* In ad- 
dition there wore so ran families of tattler** rationed and provisioned by the 
king! five servant boy* * saileteera and vaqucros * who oonduotsd about two hund- 
red of the kind's cattle • • * and the mule train which carried the provisions 
and utensils necessary for the road * . Aooording to further entries in 
the diary of Father Franolaeo Falou, who with Father Gaabon aecoapanied the 
expedition* ita personnel and supplies war# intended Jointly for the Prenldio 
whioh was to be founded in conjunction with tho new mission San Franoieo 
de Asia* 

Lieutenant Horace’s later request for additional euppliaa, stating that 
"the soldi® re are naked* and the cold in these days in severe*” indicate that 
Ms ocacand was more poorly equippod than the co-mwnlas do la ouore (companies 
in leathern armor) later stationed at the Presidio of San Francisco* 5"he 
equipri&nb of those companies Inoluded* "independently of their ordinary uni- 
forms," says liajor Gcorre Elliott, "a sort of buckskin cloak whioh could not 
bo penetrated by arrows, and which cane down ag low as the feet. They wore 
this uniform in tho field and in battle* Thoir ho ad* wore covered with a 
helmet with two vleors, a leathern buckler, on tho left arn, served to ward 
off arrows and lances in hand-to-hand fights when they defended themselves 
with the lance and oabre. The horses thenselvot, like those of asolont 
cavaliers, wer® covered with an amor of leather*" korega’s ©ompany wad# 

- 57 - 

T*3 ASVT IT TT. 6017*1? OATS 
The Presidio or San Pranolsoo 


temporary Map at laguna dm kuestra tenor* de los uolorat, sit* ef tha cm* 
eissioa, on Jun* 27. 1774* After * raoath ef fruitless waiting for the ex- 
pedition'* supply ship, the esx-.p was oovsd and construction of the first tule 
huts on the site of the Presidio was be pun. On July 23, Pettier Paleu cels-, 
brated a cess In the hut that later served as a diapel. 

Tbe supply ship Sen Carlos arrived on the afternoon of August 19, drop- 
ping anchor off the present northeastern ahcrellne of Crlssy field, fork was 
begun at cnoe on the houses and trails of the Presidio, On September 17, 1776 
— swatiosed in Father Felon's diary os the day “on which our iiotkor Churoh 
celebrates the impression of the Btigmfca. of Our Seraphic Father San Fran— 
el jqo* — the foraal not of possession of the Frosidio took place, The 
oeremony, aoeo-yanled by "peal* of bolls and repeared salvo* of oannon, aus- 
fcets, and guna," wrote Father Palou, "doubtless terrified the fcoathen, for 
they did cot el lew tha natives to be w>*n for wor.y days." 

A similar ceremony took plane en October 9 -when Hltsicm Ssn Franolsoo 
Am Asls {I'lsnlon Polorsa) wb-* solemnly dedicated in the presence of lieuten- 
ant borage, such soldiera as could be spared from the Presidio, and most of 
the crew of the San Carlos, "At the cor.oluslon," says Father Palou, "a pro- 
cession was forced In which on a sort of froaework or litter was borne an 
imago of our Soraphlo Father San Franc Isoo, the patron of th» port, the pre- 
sidio, end the niesion « • .This function was accompanied with salvos frost 
the mu a kola of the soldiers, and fr©=» axivel gun* that were brought from 
the berk for that purpose, end also with rockets. All the people that took 
part In the celebration theu ronalned at the mission for tits banquet, two 
cattle having beon slaughtered to regale thea all. In tha afternoon tho peo- 
ple retired to the presidio, and the s oaten withdrew to their ship," Kcerly 
ten years after this guy oooaelon, on July 16, 1735, the body of Uorage was 

- 53 

Tht Presidio of San Francis eo 

laid to r«it In Bisslcs Dolor**# (siora-a 1 a grave raaalns beneath the ohanoel 
floor | and buried in the nisalon’s old eeastery la another onatlne oca. -andan- 
te of the Presidio, Den Luis Arruello, flrat Governor of California under 
Uaxiaan rule#) 

Sot until two years after its founding «ma any substantial progress ratio >■ 
toward eonplsting the Presidio buildings# In a report to Buearell early in 
1T7T Doraga o explained that the "royal storehouse, the ohureh, and the guard- 
house# night mar be secured with tholr dcors, but misfortune wished that both 
the earpontor and blacksmith ah.uld find themselves unable to exeroiao their 
functions#* By the end of 1776 an adobe house for the oo-rynd^r.te had boon 
ecapleted* The walls had been raised a few feet# a slaughterhouse of stone 
had been node of earth# Within a few months this work was reduced to ruin. 
£nsign Eensangildo Sal, teaporerily in oostaand, reported that, "Luring a 
rain fall In the month of January of 1779# the stores, the slaughterhouse, 
tha church, the house of the coaaandant, and of the troone end the -rentest 
pert of the four pieces of wall fell, la auoh a way that at the end of the 
year 60, nme of the houses built in the year 78 wore a tending.* 

P,o$cn* true tion proceeded with difficulty during the remainder of h-oraja'is 
eoBwand, since the tulcs for thatohing had to he transported nine rile* and 
timber almost thirty# After Moraga’s death in 1785, ha was succeeded by Lieu- 
tenant Contalea, who woe, at the end of a year and a half of sort ice, roglacod 
by Ensign Sal, Sol was lr. cormni until Don Jose ArgunHe * it arrival In 1737, 
ond was the acting co.u-*nJar.t during Argucllo' a absence on duties olserhero* 

Tihcn Captain Coorge Vancouver# first of the foreign visitors to tho 
Presidio, arrived In 1792, he found a "square area, whose sides wors about 

Th# Presidio of San Prar oisoo 


ttt hundred yard* in length, ansloaad by a oud wall, and resembling a pound 
for eattl#,* and a garrison of about 5fi who, *with thalr wiv##, famill##, and 
a few Indian * arrant a , composed the whole of th* Inhabitants.* In October, 
1737, Arguollo was commissioned a ? revet Captain *_th# flrat rgesldic oi-ran^ 
dant* to reach that rank. 31 # resnlned In eoaaand until Uaroh 1, 1303 , and 
hla ion Don hula resolved Captain Coerge Heinrich Langadorff of th# Imperial 
Ruaslan Kavy during hi* vialt cn th# Juno In April, 1603. Langadorff de- 
scribes Don Lula a# "a woll-looklag young nan, who waa not otherwise die* 
tlnjuiaod flroa th# r#at but by a vary singular dress ... Ho had over his 
uni fora a sort of mantle of striped, woolen cloth, which locked vary suoh 
Ilk# th# Gorerlet of a bef , his head octal eg through an opening In the middle 
to that it hung down ever tha breast, back and shoulders.* 

Lange dor ff cn the Juno waa Count Klkolae von Reeanov, chamberlain 
of the Csar, then in charge of the Russian colonies la Alaska, who was anxious 
to purohaoe food supplies for the starring settlors at Sltlca* e awaiting 
the arrival of Governor Arrlllaga and his permission for the purohase, Resanov 
sadetdally visits to the Arguello resideno*. When Arrlllaga arrived, negotia- 
tions with him were difficult because of his long-standing distrust of 
foreign ships. 

Retsnov , however, had aade hlnself welcome at the Presidio end in the 
house of Ccn-ancarvte Arguallo, where his "past sufferings* wore delightfully 
requited* by the "loveliest of tho lovely sisters of Lon Luio ... th# Dona 
Conoopoicn". H# later wrot#i “Associating dally with and paying my addresses 
to the beautiful Spanish senorlta, I could not fell to perceive her active, 
v*ntureev>Y*edlsposltion and ohareoter, her unlimited and overweening doslre 
for rank and honors, which, with hor age of fifteen year#, made her, alone 



T37. AJUiT AT tt: soloes gate 
The Presidio of Son frecoieoo 

suaons her faaily, dissatisfiod with the lend of her birth* She always re- 
fer rod to It Jokingly) thus, es '» beautiful country* a warn climate, en 
ebundenoe of groin end settle — end nothing else.' 

"I desorlbcd Russia to her ee e odder oour.try, but still abounding in 
everything, end she wes willing to live there, end et length I imperceptibly 
(tree ted in her en inpatient desire to hcer eerao'hing core explicit from me, 
end when I proffered tny hand, sho aoocpted, 

"tfy proposal wes e shook to her parents, whose religious upbringing was 
fanatical, The difforonae in religion, besides the prospective separation 
froa their daughter wes, in contemplation, e dreadful blow to them." 

Sot being able to bring about the aarriege without the consent of Roae, 
Retanov obtained conditional agreement end “forced a betrothal," Ca liny 10, 
1808 he sailed with his desired cargo of. foodstuffs. He never returned! 
while on his way through Siberia to Ct, Petersburg , he was killed by a fell 
fron a hcf^se, Dona Conoepcion, wo never carried, died In a oonvent in 
Senioia in Dooesaber, 1GS7, 

Tin 1803 the Presidio was again threatened with destruction by tho 
elements, Cn July 17 of that year Don Luis Arguello wrote to the Coverr.ori 
"1 notify you that elnce tho twenty-first day of June there hare been felt 
at this presidio some earthquakes, olghtoen shocks to date, and among them 
some co violent that as result of thoa the walls of ®y house havo been oraokod, 
being badly built, so that one of Its rooms was ruined) and if the shocks havo 
done, until now, no further damage, it is beoauoe they have found no chance 
for leok of duellings," Tso years lntor ho stated that continuous storms hnd 
roduoad the granary end four soldiers* hones to a woeful state) old barraoka 
and other structures, ir.oluding the ohapol, also wore reduced to ruins. 

During 1318 the interest of the Russians in California was shown egain . - 

__ _ ^ 4% - _ ^ ____ 



Tkx Am at the domra cm 

The Presidio of Sun Franoleeo 


by the visit of tha nen-of-war gjlt, According to it* eosaender, Otto von 
tatsebue, hit ship "seared to thrcnr tha Presidio in no ssall alarsj for as 
va approached tha fortraaa of San Joaquin, r ® saw tamy soldier® on foot and 
on horseback, ar.d la tha fortress itgolf tl»y were arm loved in leading tha 
cannon, A* *« crow near, they inquired, t ; rough a speaking trunpot, to 
wh&t nation wa belonged," 

Cnrcanriant® Lui* Arguallo was promoted to the rank of captain In ISIS, 
and during that year none progress was raade in rebuilding and repairing tha 
Presidio. Ria foroa than inoluded 68 osvalryaon and 4 artilloryswn, of when 
about 40 lived at tba Preeidio, tha remainder being stationed at the siieslen*. 
The following year 50 aen of Captain Navarro to* • San Slag Infantry, under Lieu- 
tenant Valla and Aferas (Ensign) Haro, aero stationed at tba Presidio, 

The end of Spanish rule in California brought little iaaediate change 
to the Presidio of San Frar.oisco, The long-standing negloot of the outpost, 
far referred froa its inpoveriehed -overxmntal authority, because increasingly 
evident. 0<m Luis Arguallo regained in ©osssand until l’oveaber 10, 1522, when 
ho was eleoted governor of Alta California, Lieutenant Ygnaeio suc- 
ceeded hia as coaandanto, ^hen Kotsabu® revisited the Bay in 1324 the garri- 
son was so poorly oquipped that a soldier had to be sent froa the Castilli 
do San Joaquin to bog sob* powder froa Eotsebue'a ship before its aalueo 
could be answered, 

Don Luis Arguello returned froa Monterey the following year to resume hi® 
ocaaand at the Presidio and to oontiuue his struggle to keep it together in 
spite of negleot by the Mexioan authorities* That he was not auooeBsful In isp 
proving tha condition of tho post is revealed by Captain Frederick "tfilllna 
Beeohey, ooannander of, Blossoa of the British bavy,who entered the Bay in 
1320, His firet sight of tho Presidio waa *a siokly column of saoke rising 




The Presidio of San Franolsoo 

froa within son* dilapidated valla, nisnaned the Presidio or protection..." 
According to Beeehey, the garrlslon eonatated of T5 caralrywn and a few 
artillerymen, of whew aaall detachments of ala wan war* dlatrlbutod among the 
ala slcna to aot aa guards egaioat Indian attacks and to retrieve runaway 
neophytes. The eerulpaent of tha Fraaldio dragon* the British visitor de- 
scribed aa Including a "long nuaket, with a fox-skih band around the look 9 
and a "bull* a hide ahlald, on which, not withstanding the revolution of tha 
oolony 1322, wore enblascnad tha Royal ira of Spain..." So lowwwre the fi- 
canoea of the garrison that Co-a n dante Martinet* salary had not been paid 
for 11 years | the governaeat just prior to Beeehey** vlalt had sent a cargo oi 
"paper cigars" to Uonterey to be used In payaant of the soldiers* salaries. 
They were refused, but since "all other tobaooo wag ecntr&bendj and ns the 
Spanish are fond of snaking,* the contender of H.U.S. ^loagcre concluded that 
this cargo stood "a fair chance, In tha course of tine, of answer lag tho in- 
tentions of tho Government", 

Despite its depleted garrison and inpo verlshcd condition the rresidio 
in the spring of 1329 was oallod upon to organise an expedition against the 
Indiana, resulting in tha greatest military engagenent north of licnterey prio 
to Aoerioan occupation. Yougg Chief Eatanlalao, a renegade neophyte, had fla 
the previous year, with other converts froa Mission San Jose and Mission Sant 
Clara to the San Joaquin Valley, There the rebels were joined by a nuaber of 
unconverted Indians. Under the leadership of Eetanielao and his associate 
Clpriano, they oreotod orude fortlf lost Iona near tho junction of the 
Stanislaus and San Joaquin Siva rs, froa which they conducted raids on tho 
neighboring ranchos. In answer to the appeal of Father Duran fr on Mission 
San Jose, Cosasndante Martinos, on Lay 5, 1329, dispatched Sergeant Sanches 

with dO soldiers and a swivel gun froa the Proaidio to locate and destroy 

- 45 - 

The Proaidlo of S*n Fmnoisoo 

tb« Indian fort on the 3tanl»laua* Taro day* liter, ro inf oread with troop* from 
Mission San Jose, Tsrgeant Sanches' detaohaent at'aofced tha Indiana la tl» 
dense thloket where they were entrenched. ""Oills this operation wag proceed- 
ing," aaya tha author of Stories of Stanislaus , "the Indian* ohargsd upon tha 
forces under San oho*. Tha battle raged Uuskets w»r» used by tha 

nan under Sonohesj muskets and arrows wore the weapons" of tha Indians. Tha 
swivel run was ineffective. At sunset Candies withdrew. On the fol lowing 
uoming Sanoho* and his force returned to the coxbat. As before. It continued 
throughout tha entire day. The siege was Ineffective, Two of the assaulting 
troops were killed after entering the woods and eight were wounded. Cf tha 
Indian allies eleven were wounded, one mortally. The exhaustion of the ran 
and of the a-sssunltlon caused the siege to be abandoned. The Sanches contin- 
gent retreated to Sen Jose* Sergeant Soto dlod from the effects of his wounds* 
Returning to the eeene of the battle with 40 soldiers, Sar.che* found 
Chlof Hstanlslao strongly reinforced by Indians from the surrounding coon try 
and decided that only a largo expedition could dislodge them. This was or- 
ganised at Monterey under the cosoand of Lieutenant lari an o 0. Vallejo. It 
consisted of Infantry, cavalry, end artillery troop# with a field piece cap- 
able of destroying the palisades whlah the Indians had erooted before their 
entrenohments , Vallejo, who recently had led a campaign against the Tulare 
Indians, was Joined at San Joaculn rlv-or Ikxy 29, 1S29, by the use of rafts. 

On the next day they were at the soeno of the for.-«er battle . They were met 
by a hail of arrows. Vallejo sot fire to the wood. As the Indian* oe-se to 
the edge of the thloket the three-pounder on the opposite bank destroyed nany 
of them. In the afternoon Sar.nho* attaofceJ the foe In tho thicket, fighting 
for over two hours with a foroo of twenty-five sen under him in tho burning 
brush and retiring at dusk. On the next morning Vallejo entered the thicket 


The Presidio of San Franoiio* 

with thirty-wren sea* Be found the place defended toy pits* ditohes* and barri- 
cades skillfully arranged.* The Indians bad fled furing the night to another 
thiotet where* behind slnilar defenaes* they held off the Vex loan forces for 
another day and a nirht during which seny of tha savages were killed while attempt- 
ing to eecapa the siege, 3o effective, in eoite of failing asannltlon, was the 
fire of Vallejo’s and Sanohes’ troops that on the coming of the third day of the 
battle only three equawa were found alive in Eetaaislao's primitive fortress, thong 
the chief hlnself had managed to escape the slaughter* 

Eartines, who again succeed d Arguello as ccpmndanto in 1S23, retired three 
years later, h'e was relieved by iiariano Vallejo, During Vallejo’s absences from 
the garrison on Indian oaapaisas, Alferet (Ensign) Sanohe# was in corarand until 
1833, when A1 force Rodrigues was named aecond In cossaand* During this ti mo, nays 
Banoroft, the effective force at the Presidio was "not sore then TO sien, of wb-a 
£6 were absent frea the peninsula ( essr-lta guard) mission duty.** 

Cn December T, 1854, citisens of the partido (presidial district) of 2an 
Vranolsoo assembled at Con&ndanto Vallejo’s headquarters to. participate in the 
first eleoticn of an ayactr.nlento (eistrlot council), Kleven electors were chosen* 
the following Sunday they elected Don Francisco de Paro, formerly a lieutenant in 
the San Elas Infantry, as alcalde (mayor) and instructed him to lay out the pro- 
jected pueblo of Verba Scene, In 1835 the only resident of tho towneitc was 
Captain ’■lilllaa Anthony li-hardson, son-in-law of Comandertte liartines, who had 
been ersployod by tho latter to teach navigation to tho Presidio’ e ruarteraaa ter 
personnel, enabling the® to transport provisions and supplies from various lindlr.g 
around the Ttay. Richardson, later the young pueblc'e harboraaster, was tho fir 3 t 
of the siorohant-advesturers who helped pavs the way for American eooupation, 

When, in 1835, Lioutenant Vallejo was wide comandante of the northern 

rsz im at tee colclu gats 

lb* Presidio of San Franolsoe 

frontier and re no red his eoduany to Sonoaia, Alfaros Juan Prado xesa was left 
la shares of the Presidio of San Franolaoo, with six artillerymen under his 
Sosaand# Though tho old post d tho official soot of ths a punt an lento 
for tho partldo of San FranoUoo, Aloalde Franoisoe do Earo established hia 
rosldsaoo at U listen Doloroa, which ainoo Its secularisation In 1355 had be- 
Ooae tho property of tho Uexlcan government# "ith tho establishment of Yerba 
Buena, tho old Presidio anohcrage was finally abandonod in favor of the core 
oholterod ooto ju it south of tho promontory new known as Telegraph Hill* 

Tho nuaber of visitors to tho Presidio in 1341 iadioatod tho increasing 
interest of foreign powers in California.# Sir George Simpson, governor of th® 
Hudson’s Bay Company’s territory in h'orth Aoarluaj Duf lot do f.ofres, attache 
of tho Frortoh legation in *exioo| and Lieutenant Chariot bilbos, compandor of 
the American naval vessel Vlncattnoa , eating geodotio surVsys of the rs.cifio 
ooast, all cane within the sans year during which tho first influx of Yankee 
immigrants arrived from across the Sierra# 

Sir Oeorgo Simpson was frankly critical of tho Presidio and its common- 
der# “If wo jsay Judge of the variety of uniforms,” h* wrote, "oaoh soldier 
oonstitutes his cnen regiment j one boing the ’Blues’ another the ’Guffs’ and 
so oni the only articles common to tho whole are an enormous sword, a pair 
Of nnsoont lauattohas, doerakin boots, and that everlasting scraps with a hoi® 
in the middle of it ror tho head," Ccoandanto Shrader, Simpson observed , See 
a paunohy little nan, enveloped in an enormous cloak. Besides having been 
engaged in cany siraishe* against both Californians and Indiana, he has had 
oany narrow escapes with hi# lifo in privato brawls," 

Wilkes apparently arrived lator in tho yea. r, when ell foroea exoept 
Corporal Joaquin Pona, an old artilleryman luft as caretaker, had been withdraw 


. The Presidio of San Franoisoa 

The Ylncannot* cos-sender reported that "we were scarcely able to distinguish 
ths Fresidio sad had it cot been for it> solitary flagstaff, we com Id not 
have asoertaiaed its situation* Frew this staff so flag flottedj the building 
was deserted, ths vails had fallen to decay, the guns ware discounted, and 
everything around it lay in quiet* were not even saluted by the stentorian 
lungs of sane soldier, so oustonary in Spanish places* even after all politi- 
cal power aa well as military and civil rule had fled** 

Although Yallojo, who had beeoae coaaandant of northern California with 
s colonel’s comieaion, sad# repeated proteats to the Hex lean olvll authori- 
ties, no replacements for the Presidio garrison were sent* In 1540 he was 
Obliged to send to San Franoi.-co, fron his Sonona ooanand, Ensign h'esa with' 
a sergeant and 12 privates* By 134£> even those had been withdrawn and the 
Fresidio was ccaplstely abandoned. By the end of the Ifaxioan rnriuo its walla 
were ruins) salvage Iron ths rubble was usod for building raateri';l by private 
individuals and by the iiexican authorities in eonstruotton of the Custom 
House at Yerba Susan* 

■ • m: 3ms An? st > t?^3 

Although official American occupation of Stn Francisco began en July 
8, 1346, whoa Captain Hentgortsry raised the flag over Yerbn Buena, there were 
no troops of the United States Arsy at the Preside until litreh of the foiled 
ing year, it that ti-js two ecsipanies of Colonel CtoTeneon*# resimsnt were 
stationed hero, under the contend of I'ajor Jrjrij* A, TTardie. F.epairs on tho 
post and its buildingo were begun and continued until these troop* wore 
discharged in tho autuaa of 1343* llardie, who then resumed his regular Arny 
rank of lieutenant. Third Artillery, rovained in ccnaand of the snail garri- 
son of First Dragoons who haJ rarohed overland with General Kearny, In the 
Spring of 1S4S the garrison was reinforced by three companies of tho second 

! THK ARhT AT nz '5CL2RS 3AT* 2^2 

The Presidio Of Sen i renoi too 

Infantry, part of a larger fore* under Brigadier General Bennett Riley, 
which errivud on transports from the Atlantis Coeat. Tka eosaaend of tha 
Presidio was trar.a ferrod froa Lieutenant Hardie to Captain t.C. Keyes, Third 
Artillery, In Fcvsmber, 1548, 

The Presidio troops during this period were ooneomod ehiofly with pro- 
tooting government property righto in the chaotic Cold Kush town, cn 
Fobruory 15, 1£E0, Captain tley^s aarohed with a squad of infantry to dr ire 
the ccuattera froa Sinoon Hill and burn their ahaoks. Three years later he 
was ordered to seise halksr** filibustering vessel, the Arrow, lyin; at a 
San Francis oo wharf, 

A visitor described the iresidio cm the middle fifties as “surrounded by 
rising grounds which are always coverod with a sen tie of green grass... The 
old adobe building*, and a portion of the trails, are there* but the hand of 
modern refinement has swept away tie dual and dilapidation wkloh, in the mind 
of the traveller, throw around these ancient struoturee their highest ohara. 
The eastle of the -iai:iQan oosendante and the fort nro now oooupied by Aasrioai 
troops* and neat, white-sashed pioicet fenooa supply the place of a large pert 
of the old walls." 

During the Civil d*r the Presidio was tbo scene of extensive troop bovo— 
meats. Volunteer regiments were asaoabled here for transfer to the faoifio 
Sorthweat, the Southwest, the Atlantia Coast. The second Volunteer Infantry 
Regiment was organised here in October and Soveaber of 1GC1, while seven oos»- 
panlee of the J.’inth Regular Infantry were concentrated at the post. Coopany L 
' Third Artillery, was ordered to the Presidio. To aoooaasodate these troops it 
was found neaaasary to establish a ceup in the hlsslon District as well as va 
lout tenporer/ oaape on the I'rcsLcilo reservation. * ino companies of the Seoc 
Infantry and one of the Native California Battalion wore nustered out here l£ 

- 48 


The Presidio of Son Francisco 

1685* At ths end of the following yttr, after four years of o arraigning in 

Tuu and haw Uox'.oo, 1,850 neober# of ths First California Volunteer Cavalry 


wort* wustered out at th* Presidio, 

Throughout thla post-uar period and laaodletsly following it, aueh was 
don® to isprove tha post, A uUitory band was authorised and telegraph lino* 
eonraoting the ?r«sldio proper with other posts end Arts la tha Ha/ arsawor® 
installed, Fraas Quarters ar.d barracks replaced the old adobe structures, a 
snail library was established, and gardens were planted to aup?les»nt tha rerp 
ular Aray rations. Improve amts ra&de on the reservation In 1363 included eon 
strustlca of & »arrc*»jaui;s railway for the uo resent of supplies and laying 
of pipes and installation of a force pusq> to protoot the buildings of the poa 
against firs# A photograph taken about this tine, however, shoes that there 
eras atill spans to spare within the boundaries of the old Cpanlsh walls. 

On October 51, 1863, forewarned by the intensity of the general election 
oa*jp*ign, iiajor CJoneral nalleat:, then eocnaading the Division of the Pnoifio, 
was authorised by the fro si dent to "take such action, in oonforsity to the 
Constitution and laws of the United States, as oay be necessary to the oivil 
authorities of California in preservin'; tha peso®", Under fallack'a orders, 
troops at tho Presidio war© "held in readiness for iarsediato servic®, Proa 
0 o'clock AM till sidnlght" of the third of November, The oleotion, "on® of 
the joost iBEportant «^er hold in Ajaerioe", said the Pally Alta California, 
"passed off oo for as ifon Frtmoieoo is concerned, in a quiet and orderly nonni 
highly creditable to both parties and to tho oity,», Forewarned, fereeroed, 
our Union oitlsens had naco such preparations that any violence against thoi 
rights would liftve boon quiohly put down, and the energotlo action of the ail 
tary authorities eonvinoed all evil disposed persons that discretion was the 
better pert of valor," 


Th* Presidio of Bon Frtntlioo 

Troop wcrrmsnte brought about by th* <i«f«nw of th* western frontier 
against Indian raid*, which oonstltut*d th* Chief p*ao*ti»* eotivity at th* 
Prttldlo aft«r th* Civil r?ar, were Intensified in th* a*v*nti«s, *ajcr Genera: 
Irwin KcDcwell, oosaandlng th* Division of th* Pacific, ordered troop* gatherei 
froa a« far couth a* Tuna, Arisona, to be aaaauibled at th* Prosidlo end dis- 
pa t oho d to iia jer General Oliver 0, Howard as reinforooswnt* for th* campaign 
Against Indian tribes opposing settlement of tTeetern territories. An 1366 
travel booh credited the Presidio barracks with "the largest nllitary force 
on th* western clop* of th* United States,* Its author adds that General 
KoDowcll had "node fin* roads through the Presidio Reservation, planted trees 
and coaraanoed other improvements, so as to oonvort it into a public park which 
In time a ay rival Golden Cate ^ark in its attractions,* Th* reservation by 
this time bad, among other lsproverants, a dOCHyafd rifle range end an ob- 
servatory connects d with th* triangulation station of the Coast Guard and 
Geodetio Survey, both established In 1G32, 

In January, 1CS8, just thro* months before the outbreak of the war with 
Spain, Eon Francisco celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of James i'Ar8hall , s 
discovery of gold, "The week of the Zdth*, according to the Ovor land Monthly 
was to be "filled with festivities,.," inoludlng a "ailitary review and 

allltary ganses of the soldiers at the Presidio", By April 25, "military 


ganes" had bogun in «*>*d earnest for the headquarters band and the entire 


six troops of. the fourth Cavalry remaining in the United, States* ' They were 
ordered by the Secretary of or to be assembled and nounted *t the Presidio 
and to be put In readiness for duty in the Philippine Islands, 


The Presidio of San Francisco 

Volunteers fro.-: California, Oregon, _ and Uashington, responding to the 
first call of the President, arrived daily at the cable-car terminus on the 
reservation. Troops overflowed the wooden barracks occupying the sits of 
today's red-brick Thirtieth Infantry barracks snd were billeted in rows of 
tents pitched where Letterman General Hospital now stands. Of the California 
volunteers the Argonaut seid, "There has been considerable rivalry between ths 
First and the Seventh Regiments... The result of the physical examinations 
was somewhat surprising. In the First Regiment, twenty-two per cent, or ncarl 
one-quarter, 'were rejected as not fulfilling the reouirements. The men of the 
Seventh Regiment were all examined by local surgeons before coming to this 
city,' yet eighteen per cent of them were rejected. This would indicate that 
either the local examination was carelessly conducted, ot that the southland 
does not produce as hardy a lot of men as are those vfoobreathe in the 
winds and fogs of this neighborhood." Additional troops were on their way 
to the Fresidio from the East as early as Hay 15. Until another camp was 
established outside ; the reservation they were encenped in the East and Nest 
Cantonments and in Tennessee Hollow, then knovns as Camp Herriam. 

On Nay 23, according to the Overland Monthly, 12 companies of Californio 
volunteers "marched through the city from the Presidio to the ’fail Docks to 
the accompaniment of the cheers and sobs of two hundred thousand people. It 
was the going of the first home regiment from the mainland of the United Stat 
to fight a foreign foe, and the concentrated fever was something not to be 
forgotten by those who witnessed it." For the Philippine expedition and for 
service in the Eastern States and Alaska, more than 30,CG0 troops were or- 
ganised and outfitted at the Fresidio; and it was there following the ex- 
pressed wishes of officers and men, that the regiments were mustered out. 

Among the last to be mustered cut. (September 21, 1399) were the personnel 

- 51 

ttts £T.xr /.r rm Gri.r-rry cate 

The Presidio of Francisco 


of th« First Infantry Rcflwent ef California 'Volunteer a, who had hear arson £ 
the first dctaohrants to sell for .’lanila on the City of ry-ln. 

h'lthtn aa h.wr and a half of the first ehook of tha earth^isVo on April 
10, 190S, Presidio troops wr« on duty In tha ewor-ency. A refurce cer-p wag 
established here, end on April 21 tha garrison vbi relnforoed by Seuardon 
Headquarters and Tropes 5 and H o'* the Fourteenth Cavalry fron tfontarey, who 
assisted In "-oltchirr; tents, di^-irv; sinks and latrines, and ©rear Icing tha 
first kltohona where hot seals were served" to refuses, "The tant# *•« 
pitched la streets, each street hawing a number and inspector... respoosivlo 
for Its proper policing," In all, three refuse© eneps wero established on 
tbs reservation. Passages to Presidio buildings and ©qulp’wnt as a result 
of tha disaster amounted to f-127,7S0. 

little 03 c'jrrod to break tha routine of tha post during tha daceth 
that fcllesred. In 1509 a number of foreign visitors were reoelrad. Including 
Jepeneae and Carmen military attsoherj In 1810, Prince Tsai Fsur* of Japan, 

Tha first participation of Presidio troops In the Panama-Pacific Tbccooiticn 
was In October 14, 1011, when companies of the Thirtieth Infantry, a ©rovi- 
clonal reticent of Coast Artillery, and a battery of Field Artillery (1’jountai 
were reviewed by President Taft previous to grcund-breakln?, corer.oales for 
tha fair* According to a newspaper aooount, "The military parade lent gor- 
C«oua oolor to the spectacle j the soldier hosts frera the Presidio thrilled 
tha thousands as they swung into review post their coo'-cndsr-ln-ohiof. 
Veterans of the Thirtieth Infantry who had seen service In the Philippines 
and ha<i not seen Taft since he sorved In that country as Governor General, 
had the satisfaction of being recognised and applauded by hin as they 
marohed past," A ar.vslry escort lYo» tha Prosldlo was provided for 
Governor Hlraa Johnson, Ucyor Janas Pelph, Jr., and Marshall Hale, who 

- 68 - 

Tfat Presidio of Saa rranolsee 

beads d the Mr* than 160,000 marchers to the exposition grounds on opening 
da./, February So, 1315, Four troops of the First Cavalry, -hjor J&ooa <3, 
Berberd ooosandlng, took part la moat of the parados and oil It ary exhibition* 
during tho fair. 

On January 22, 1912, ton days aftor tbe first adoption by the A ray of 
■wire leas telegraphy as a means ef communication;, a board of officers net at 
tho Presidio to examine and report on tho osrits ef recant inventions in wire- 
less telephony end telegraphy. The Presidio wireless etatlon, amateur and 
aon-aarcial stations, and the A rmy transports Sheran , Yho-ea , and -^Hafcrd , as 
veil as the Amy nine planter Ar=Jstead, were used in tho exhaustive cay and 
night tests, A section of Ceapsny K, Signal Corps, at dally drill with a 
field-pa3iin» receiving set, picked up wireless telephone By April 

2, after changes in the apparatus and after extensive lonr-distance tests, 
both with transports et sea and with ovwrland stations, Major Arthur S* 

Chase's invontiens were found acceptable, ills com unieation of that date to 
the exanining board stated his willingness to have Ale apparatus inspsoted 
by an expert to "deteroine beyond a reasonable doubt that the basic principle 
of the Invention are now and do not Infringe upon ion own systems of telephony 
and telegraphy," 

Five years later tbs Presidio was transformed almost overnight, as tbe 
most intensive period of troop training in its history was begun. As early 
aa April 6, 1317, acbllltatlon of the ceoend and Fifth Provisional Infantry 
Brigades of the California Rational Guard was under way. Shortly before noon 
the following day, with tho rcoelpt of tho liar Department order declaring 
that a state of war existed with Germany, the reservation and its newly es- 
tablished troop concentration eon s wore put on a war footing and roadways 
near fortifications were closed to all but -illitary use. By April 10 the 


Th« hresldlo of San Franc !. oo 

will tit rejiwmts wore fully armed and equipped and BcblUsation wee oompletsJ 
On April 14 , students for an enlisted wn'i offioer training aohool 
began to arr loo at the Presidio, also a etspeign am* launched to obtain 
2,500 con for a civilian offloor’o training camp scheduled to opan on V*T «. 
Emphasis la newspaper accounts was laid on tha "*r Department* a pronlse that 
"tha first 10,000 non ectaalsslosad froa tills and thraa othar similar o*=?a 
will be assigned to tha first continuant of a half-wlllion nan on whioh 
Kaahlngton la planning* Those will be the flrat to aaa active fighting 
service*" The quota for the camp waa core than doubled by tha nuaber of 
applications raseived, and, by iiay 10, nawspapers announced that 2,500 
prospective offloars, selaotad froa asong "tha bast blood of tha 'eat". In- 
cluding "industrial leaders, college professors and students," were assembled 
to begin training* Three aontha later the training period for the flrat came 
terainated, with 1,400 sen froa asoag the original enrollment reoewcondod for 
oofsnleslon* A eeoend officer*# training oaesp began operation iataediately, 

. During Kay, 1917, the Twelfth Regular Infantry returned to tha rrealdie 
froa "the adobe shaoSce of Kogales," where they had tarred in the iCexlean 
border expedition, and sore into a wooden oantonaent built on the elte of tho 
Panama-Pacific Exposition, .-'-©re; according to tha regissnt'a historian, they 
did olose-order drill "aaidst tha faded glories of the Dream City Hint had 
welcomed the world in 1915. ..while tha lofty arches of tho Palace or fine Art 
eohoed Reveille and Taps all morning long as tha rocrult bugleri gathered in 
little groups beneath the willows to practice calls," On the first of the 
next year the regiment, brought up nearly to war strength from Its previous 
thousand even, loft for Camp Krercont and training for overcoat service* 

TIE Amrr AT T!r 3 GOL!£* OATH 
Th* Presidio of Gan Francisco 

Zb April, 1913, ■•▼oral regiswBta of th* 91st Division, which oontainod 
*ore Californians than any otlvnr division, wore dewoboliwd at the Presidio, 
Also deaobolised there,' early in 1313, was San Francisco** "own California 
Gristly Division,* which had been organised around a nucleus of the Second 
California FiolJ Artillery, National Guard, and mobilised into the regular 
44th 'J,3, Field Artillery on August 6, 1917, Cf floors of the roglaant in- 
cluded ito ocusandiRg officer Thornwall iullally, tho rail-known author* 
Ste-^ar rdwar-l TMt* and Pater 8. Kyne, Archibald Johnson (son of California** 
Senator ~lraa Johnson), George 0. HontgoKsry, ».cz Haddux, and other proai- 
nsnt San Frenfllaoans. Quartered at Bordeaux, Franco, the division was ready 
for aotlcn when the Areistioe »as signed. 

In September, 65C Californians of the First Division, who had carried 
on the tradition of "the first to go and the leat to goes back" established 
by the First California Volunteers in 1S38, wer* onoanped at tho Presidio. 
Keaspap era stated that "speole.1 pains were taken at the demobilisation casp 
to haw tho dcoks cleared for action when tho faseua First arrived, ea the 
four gold stripes on the alo'eve* of the veterans show they have boon in th* 
service of thoir country long enough.* Total leases of the division were 
24,000 out of its original strength of 50,000 sen. Among other California 
troops deaebllitod at the Presidio were the 645 duratien-cf-the-war men who 
returned frera Siberia on October 6, 1913. 

llthcugh a o&rpaign to ir.prove the quarters of the officer* and en- 
listed men at tho Presidio was begun as early os 1215, attempts to sooure an 
adequate rebuilding appropriation from Congress orntlnued for 26 years. Th* 
death of General Pershing’ e wife and three children in a Presidio fire in 121 
fooused attention on the housing problem at the reservation, and f 37, 000 for 
the remodeling and repair of barracks and quarters was set aside the followin 

The Presidio or San Tranoisoo 



jmr» This sum was ecnsidered inadequate, end with the return of the 
Third Brigade fron Uexioo new problem* in the hour lug of personnel were 
ora a ted. Aa extensive newspaper esuapoign for Prccidio rehablliaticn we* 
launched In 1927 bat attempts to past an appropriation bill in Congress 
was repeatedly a'.doiraoirw! by counter-proposals to aoll the entire rotorva- 
tioa for real eatata eubdivieion* Three year* passed' before i 210,000 was 
apportioned to replace eons of tho old wooden dwelling* with no darn brick 
duple* house* Newspapers considorod this project "only a beginning toward 
doin^ dclng away with ell the franc c hacks that now house non-oorraisaicrod 
of floor S',” Another newspaper campaign, carried cn 10 years labor, was 
required to bring about the *2,163,000 modernisation pro?x*ua begun in 
July 193S* 

On April 8, 1931, the first celebration of Artsy Pay, the anr-iversary 

of America's entry into the v.'crl d b'a r, was observed at the Presidio. At first 

Marked by rcutino infantry parades and displays of equipment, the celebration 

in 1934 was extended to inelude * two-day demonstration* The first day v&s 

featured by exhibitions of gas defense, signaling, grenade- thrrwing, and the 

Arry'e work in Forestry and Civilian Conservation Canpsj en ant lair oraft 

defense of San Franolseo was staged that night* On the aooend day S0,CC0 

speotators witnessed a chan battle beginning vith a barrage laid down by the 

Second Battalion, Seventy-sixth Field Artillery, protootod by the klxth 


Artillery troops and aniaale participated in tho maneuver* Battery A, 

Sixth Cocst Artillery, nountod guard for antiaircraft firing. Brigadier 
General Sherwood A, Cheney, coaranding the Coast Artillery Sistriot, 

was in charge of the aaneuvors, while Lt* Col* Janus P* Karloy oerrranded tho 
Seventy-Sixth Field Artillery ocntlngent froa Vlonterey* Tho San Frar.oiaoo Jr. 

- 68 «• 

The Presidio of Son Francisco 

Chamber of Comaeree coop-sratsd with the Any In sponsoring the exhibition. 

In 1357 the data of the Any Day ©elebration van o banged to April 3 to 
permit a larger attendance, and the sham battle was eaitt&d. four new group# - 
the Engineer Corps, Officer* Reserve, National Guard, andCCC Knrolleae - 
took pert In tic activities that year, Curing the saneuvers Brigadier General 
Joseph Tracy ocwsanded the provisional brigade of the Thirtieth Infantry, Sixth 
Coast Artillery, and a Secut Car platoon la a review directed by He.jor Gen, 
George Siva ad#. Tan thousand spectator* witnessed an exhibition of a new 
motorised attack and withdrawal, executed by scout ear platoons of tho ilth 
Cavalry. Eightcvn bombers from uanilton Field demonstrated radio control of 
•orial unit* from stations on the ground* Rapid firing with 155-all limo ter 
guns was demonstrated by the 25Cth Coast Artillery, National Guard. 

Amy Tvy calibration for the two foliating years were transferred to 
other Bay region locations, but in 1340 the day was observed at the Rrasidio 
again, and cn its original date, April 6, Lieutenant Gonsral John L. r 0c~itt, 
ooansr.ding the fourth Army Corps, reviewed the troops and conferred the Bis- 
tltiuglsed Service- Gross for heroism on Theses U. Rail of Los Angeles, formerly 
a private in the ninety-first division. An innovation in the celebration was 
a dosonstration of Amy baking by the Presidio Cooking Sohool. 

Again, In Juno 1G40, the people by the Goldon Gate reviewed their Army, 
whoa 8t«i-helicoteiJ troops of the 50th Infantry paraded for publio inspection 
with full field oquipnont - tonts, guns, tools, cosrascd oars, trucks, motor- 
cycles, and anti-airoraft ordnance, inhere Spanish cosreonlos de la eucra 
once wheeled and deployed their mounts and drilled for defense against Indians 
artsod with bows and trros, where the Aaarlcan volunteer of the fifties pr*o- 
tioed the old manual of loading in 15 motion* with hie oap-and-ball riflo. 


A* Presidio of Ssa Fraaotaoo 

etreaalined nodarn troops of tha Say sad Coastal areas are being trained 
and equipped for defense against serial and neohanised warfare. 

Thus the pea oe tins routine of ths Presidio of San Prar.cisoo has 
attenptod to keep pnoe with the teohnioal advances and international develop* 
neuts during the two decades since the world U*r« ' In the a u-turn of 1340 the 
post again aaunaod the task of rsob 111 sins* and training oitisen nan power fron 
ths Western states in cooperation with ths Nation’s greatest penoetine pro* 
parednacs progress# On the shoulders of its officer and enlisted personnel 
ratted the duty of putting into practice within the Einth Corps Area tto 
intent of ths Eat local Conscription let, signed by President Franklin D« 
Booeevelt on September 16, 1340, 


1* • The eossand of ths United States Arc# field forces for the 16 
states west of the lilssixsi??! Hi var centers in tbe »ISA1C.';IAETSI13 OF TUB 
F0C2TS ARlff, Hoy tit Awe noar Lincoln Bird, and tha ES03CARTSS5 OF TEE 
Klara CORPS ARAA, in a nearby building (a set of a*de*ov*r, concrete 
cavalry barrfccka to which this headquarters was aovwd fron the Santa Fe 
Building, Sen Franolsoo, in 1521), 

For Amy purposes, continental Catted States is divided Into nine 
territorial soctiocs known as Corps Arean. Tie tscblle defense is ths 
duty of four field araios. The Fourth Amy, oonprielng field foroee of 
the Hinth and Seventh Corps Areas, is ohergod with the defense of the 
Paolfio Coast. The Coynanding General of tha Fourth Amy (1941) is Lt, 

Con, John L. CoElttj of tha Einth Corps Aroa, -iajor Gen. Ernest D. Peek. 
Posts, oa»po, and stations in California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Grogon 
Dtah and Washington are under the juriodloticn of the iloadquarters of the 


tsx uaa AT THT 001DV3 GATE 
. The Prcutdlo of San Kranoisoe 

list h Corps iri&i as are the RCTC, CT-TfC, CCC and Organised Keterves of 
these atatos, 


Tbs SOTC (Raaarra Offloers* Training Corps) prepares students to beooaas 
reserve officers while taicln^ their regular courses in designated institu- 
tions of higher learning* It offers* through four years of instruction. 
Supervised by Aray officer a in the Department of Military Soienoes and 
Tactics, a means for practical training in organisation* leadership, and 

As defined by the National Defense Aet, the be* la purpose of the Offi- 
cers * Reserve Corps is to train and prepare qualified civilians to porfera 
the duties of officers in oaae of a national emergency* Its officers, who 
represent all bran shoe of tto service* are trained to funoticn in a vide 
variety of duties ween called to aotive duty* They are prepared for appoint— 
sent in various says and must oontlnue their nilitary education after appoint’ 
nent through the Army Extension dohool and other pertinent abhcola. Appli- 
cants accepted* averaging cue out of five, a one from iaren sources i core than 
half fre® colleges* a few froa the Citiwms* Military Training Camps | and a 
smaller -unbar fren the Regular Amy (no oppiiof-nt nay rank below a sergeant) 

The CH7C (Cititena* Military Training Con pa, new suspended) provides 
iunsser encoHjxaonts for young won seeking corral toienc oa caoond lieutenants 
in the Officers* Reserve Corps* Tho price objects of tho carps ar® to bring 
together young men froa all sections of the oountry and thereby develop 
oloser national unityj to teach patriotism, solf-diaoipline, and obodionooi 
to develop the physical standards of Anar lean youth | and to interest young 
ssen in military training* Tho oowaisalon is obtained after having attended 
a progressive aeries of camps* The Military Training Ca-ps Association, 
since its inception 13 years no, has enrolled some 500,000 young sen from 

the Presidio of San I'rer.oi.sco 


nr* than 1,000,000 applicants, 

Sinoe its formation in 1833, the CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) has 
engaged la work throughout the oountry on project* devoted to the opruam- 
tlon and developaont of natural resources* theae includa foroat fire pre- 
vention and control, sell erosion control, and the development of recreation 
areas, The .'nparfesant of Labor, through the relief administration of the 
•tatoa within tha Elnfch Corps Area, La responsible for the eeleetlon of the 
•nrclleoo* regional brtnohe* of Government departments aro responsible for 
planning the work project** and tho Ainth dorp* Area oocsamd la responsible 
far the corntruoticn and s.duAnistratica of the oasspo wader Its Jurisdiction, 
and far tho personnel ( fron enrol h-^nt to discharge), 

2, JUTICKAL tTdi-JO EDADOvARTTHS (open to epplioanta sad Ar»y teracnr.tsl) 
occupy a -terc-stcr*.* yolico frara structure on Lincoln 31v«l botevo’ hoyes A vs 
end C-rahaci 3t. (Off loco of tba Corps Area ordnance end recruiting offioers 
are In th a b«w building.) 

The Hi.tionnl Guard is tn ltpcr tant coespenoat of tho irty of United 
States, iho “r.tioaol Dafsnse Lot of 1£22, widoh for<te the basis or tfc* nat- 
ion's nuderc rilitury organisation, provides that the A ray of the bailed Stats 
Shall oonslst of the Regular Any, the national Guard, and the Organised 
Rocorvtifl."’ i<n dtr its provisions, tiu> Rational Guard is organised, equipped, 
and trained along the eazro iincs an the Ho gular Arcy, In the event of a 
national emergency, the feder-lisod Guard ie prepared to function prone t iy 
with tho Kogular A rcy until tho country’s available resources of non and 
material can bo mobilised, 

Rational Guard troopa in the Bay area inolude the 250th Coast Artillery 
160th Infantry, 143rd Field Artillery, 115th Quartermaster Regiment, 40th 
Signal Company, and 4Cth Division Spcoial Troops, During fall, winter, and 

THE AMLT AT TH 7. GCTDri GATS r> o er 

Ths Prosidio of San Francisco faOO 

Spring the training of the Guard consist# of indoor uno ry drill* This oul- 

adsates la a period of field training at avaat/r camps (tho principal camp Is 

at St- Luis Obispo)* 

3* In the center of the i'aln Post 1* the PARADE CRf.tTTD (branded by 
Sheridan Are, Ansa, and ’/ontgc tsery Sts, and Lincoln 31vd), a hard-surf aoed 
area sloping freu tho origirnl Cc-rardarcla on the south toamrd the Goldan 
Gate to ths north* Tare recruits learn the fundamentals of infantry drill* 
Through ths megaphone at the northern wad of the Parade Ground buglers sound 
ths rsgissantal calls* Tho irprassirs ccresony of Retreat - saluting ths 
colors io held late swry afternoon at tho l?S-fect min flagpole east of tho 
parade ground ( Cher 1 dan Arc at Grcha-i and Ar.rc Streets)* 

d# Soldiers convicted of infractions cf military law end rejrulatl cna 
are confined in the rod-brieh PC-5T OWED house en Lincoln Sir* 1 et the northern: 
end of tho Pared; Ground. Thsy rrrr lawns, wetcr f lcrrers* collect garbage, and 
perform other prescribed and onerous tasks of the Presidio while under arsed 

5# The seven units cf the BAP PACKS Cf TEE BOTH HIFAflfT (open only to 
Any) , facing the Faredc Ground fr=n t'cntr.crcry. £t, include ft two-story 
structure at the north end, which bouses tho Seglrental Band. and six three— 
story reo-brlck and wooden buildings, white-trbnred and rray-r cofed* Their 
full-i6«£th» open porches overlook lawns, flcror teds, shrubs, and trees* 

In 1940 addlticml housing was provided by the construction of two two-story 
concrete buildings cn Kayes Ave cn the east aide of the Lain Post Perade Orou 
On Jay 16, 1901, pursuant to the Aot of Congress of Feb 2, 1901, the 
30th Infantry, United States Arcy, was organised at the Presidio. A month 
later it began two years* serrioe in the Philippine Islands} a eeootid two 

- 61 - 

Ths trot idio of San Iranoltoo 

/•ars* tour of foreign sorrico began ther® In 19C7* The reglnent was In 

AlnsVx. from 1312 to 1314 end subsequently was in spadol enccrpment* in 

Bow York end Taxes* During June, 1317, tbe 50th contributed two-t'nlrds of 

Its otrcngth to foru the SCth and 53th Ho-lnenta of Infantry. The 50th and 

&3th *#r# then brlhjausd as the Gth and seat to Csr.p ilroone, Vo. Cnrnlira, 

as a part of the 3rd wivlsicn. The Division left for France April 1917 

end rcnainod intaot throughout all of Its lattice. As a part of the 3rd 

Division, the 30th served with distinction on th® iirne front and was 

deocratud by iiarshal Philip;-® Fetain* later. It f-rrvod a part of tho Amy 

of Occupation on tho Rhine* Tho SCth returned to the Presidio in 1922 aftor 

having first spent a roeri^nication period in 1910 ;t Ctusp Pike, Arkansas, 

and & short ported of sarvioo at Ca-.p Lewis, ”s.3hinqtcr«, 1321. Its sott.o 

is "Cur Country, not Curs&i-ses." 

The 50th Infantry nsgii^attl T&nu, const Cored one of the finest in the 
2‘ation, is comprised of 28 permanent noaiars, *ho e.ot solely c.s nsioiene 
during thoir enliscaent, and a burls oerpa, f-nic Waning separately for regi- 
jaonial calls, tseccblics, und similar services, The bund farctitns at 
parados and drills anu at rd. liter;. - sxi funerals, Travsllng with 
th® regiount, it k»» eorvod in rh® Philippines, Aloske, end France* 

C, ME SITS OF Tllfi OLD B’JiilAL 3RFTJD is indicated by a red-wood siarfcer 
in front cf £ or racks ; 14* Tho area ianodietoly wtst of tho carker ana used 
ns a os-no tory for Indian, Spanish, and Lexicon soldiers free* 1770 to 1846* 
The roxaine have boon roaoved and cow art* interred in the national Cg notary 
(sea below) in a tout ssrkod "The Unknown Soldier"* 

7* From a sual pies* at tho inter sootion of Shoridan Avo raid Infantry 
Yorruoo, Fluhor Loop loeds upward to tho new Presidio Post Chapel (open to 
publlo 10-4 weokdajtj, 6-1, Sun., on a hillolopo overlooking tho ikin Post. 

Tb* Presidio of San i’ranolaco 

lb* t 60 , 000 concrete building, furnished with gray a tuooo end roofed with 

rod tilo, dedicated Aug. 4, 1331, haa a baocground of tall eucalypti, C-n 

the cast entrance facade a 324-spuare-foot eutral dopicta events in the 

Presidio’s early history and the later poacetino sofclvitioa of the* Army. 

8, A groan landscaped park: surrounds the PKrSTDIO TiH^THR, Moraga 
Ive. facing Infantry Termer? , a modern, cream- colored concrete building 
with rod-tiled roof and arched entrance portiooe which wan completed in 
Aug, 1933, by the war Department hot ion Pictures Bureau, Seeorul-run 
features ore shewn five nights a weote for Army men end their fenilios, 

0, The square bounded by Moraga Are,, Argucllo Blvd, Crahea St., 
and Sheridan Ave., a snail green parte ornamented with two old bronss 
Spanish canons dated 1C79 and 1C33, io the SITS 0? THE FTTSHTh'O 7PAGETT. 
Hero, from 1913 to 131E, General John J, Pershing and hie family ocoupied 
e big two-atory franc dwelling oharaingly cot amid the donas shrubbery. 
Shortly pact midnight on Aug, 27, 1315, Off loe-of-thc-Day Captain Harry E, 
Casey, found the house in f lassos, a heavy fog had obsoured the smoke. The 
fire was brought under control too late to save lire. Pershing and her two 
small daughters from suffocation in thoir bodroomj the youngest child, 
lias tor T>arron Par eh in*, was rescued, 

10, The CLD m'OVl 11AHAZIKE, Sheridan Avo. and Ansa St. is little 

changed since its construction by the 'ioxioan garrison in 1045. Ita tea- 
foot walls of native oteno are covered by a rod-tiled roof with overhanging 
oaves, Hie heavy walls aro double with an air space to lnsuro dryness, and 
two narrow clots for ventilation pioroe the whitewashed coat wall, cash a 
few foot from the heavy laoodon door. i \ 

11, A smll parado ground occupies part of the SITE C? TDK ORIGINAL 
PRESIDIO (2,42 acres - 213 x 330 ft) northeast of Uoraga Avo«, between Itoca 

The Presidio of San Franoisoo 


k Orah&m Sts. Tit* original area la Indicated by four Barkers' one la the 
patio of the Officers' Club) another on the vest aid* of Grahaa St, 2Z5 ft 
north of tha olubi a third 335 ft southeast of the 2d marker j and tha 4th 
in tl>o floor of the sain aisle of tha Chapel of Our lady (see below). Those 
boundary coroora are at accurate as patient investigation has been able to 
place then. Mo completely accurate knowledge of the exaot alto previous to 
1752 hn« been found, but it la probable that tho original (1775) location 
has chanced very little during tho rebuilding and reconstruction carried cn 
by tho Spanish and Ucxic&n garrisons, A mp prepared by toaporary co~.tu.rfa 
Eemoneglldo Sal, in Hay 1722, gives tho north and south boundaries as 522.48 
ft, and tha oast and vest boundaries as 355. C ft. This soap varies frea 
Father Falou 1 s account of tho original plan, which was mriced out on a square 
measuring 255,78 feet. The accuracy of Sal's map s»y be questioned somewhat 
einee it places tha eonsmdante* a house in the northwest corner of the quad- 
rangle, vhllo Capt. Geo. Vancouver, of the British l<*ry, who visited the 
Presidio in Sovenber of that year, states that the comandancia was to the 
"left of the church* end “at tho southern, higher end of tha parade ground , * 

A later rap (1820) also places the ecrand&nte' e quarters at the location of 
the present Officers' Club. 

Vancouver described tho original Presidio as set in the nidst of a 
"verdant plain, surrounded by hills cn every side, excepting that vhioh 
fronted the port", lie found tho buildings aurr-unod cn three aides by a wall 
"formed by uprights and horiscatal re. ft ore of large tiuhor , botween which 
dried sods and moistened earth wore procsod as dose and as hard as possible) 
after which tho whole waa cased with the earth cade into a sort of mud 
planter, which gave it tho appoarnnoe of duroblllty". Tho original growth 
of trees and shrubs of the 'Vo r cent plain* wero coon exhausted by the Spanish 

• 84 • 

ns ARirr at oqustt gats 

Tho Presidio of fan Francisco 


*&4 the Presidio lay unprotected - attached by wind and rain. Tn spit* of 
frequent rebuilding, nothing regained at the tin* of tho Arrorloon occupation 
but the cr cabling ruins of the trails and a few shattered adobe buildings* 

Today, against a rich groen background of ouoalptua and cypress trooe, 
firat planted furing Gen. lnDowoll’ e oosssand, an ancient Presidio tradition 
is still a'ooervud on the original eite» no person other than tho Junior Lt. 
on duty nay cross the parade ground exoept during drill* 

12. Cypress tress form a dark background for the creaw-oolired, red- 
roofed CFFICZR3* CLJ3, borage Ave. and C-rohaa St* fro long, low vinga 
fronted by open versa Jas f ionic th® gable-roofod, ens-otory oontrai section* 
Iron grill work decorates the windows j tnro onoient Spanish brento canon face 
the Slain Post and tho flag staff fren the strip of green lawn before the club, 

Built in 1751 of adobe, to replaoe the original wooden structure (pali- 
S«da) built in 177C, "So, 20 1?aln Post* 1 (as it was oalled in Presidio rooorns 
lost, through repeated repairs and renodelin-, practically ail tmcao of itc 
original oharaotor, In Peconbor 1333, at tho direction of the Poet Conrandor 
a complete renovation end restoration was -undertaken unior tho supervision 
of the Quartereaster Corps, fata found in post and city rooorde g lded 
the architects and docoratcra. 

Tho colling vaa raiued six feet to allow the installation of a cross- 
system of ventllationj tho roof was reinforced strongly to enable it to 
carry tho dead load of SO tone of rod Spanish tile. Tho exterior walls of 
the old atruotur# wore etuocood and a dec? orotua. About four inoh- n 
from the interior welle faloo vails wore constructed! thsoo etucoood 1'c.cco 
conooal tho nodern heating ani lighting fixtures* (Through a glsased open- 
ing in tho north vcall of the teeenbly hall a eooticn of tho original adobe 
is visible,) 

lb* rr«»I'-ic* of San Francisco 

Khe» the floor* w»ro removed to excavation* war* attempted within the 
immediate area of the original wells for fear of weakor.ins them. Excava- 
tion for sons* of tbs eontar plors exposed * vary old, badly ber.t rr.d eotrrod 
bras* b hoots , irboao origin 03 .1 d not bo determined | this was engraved with 
the of tho two officers resporjtiblo for tha work of restoration and 

and placed on the will la the rain JAllwny, A replica of tho ancient 
Spanish coat of am*, enbodying tha Crown of Spain and tha castle and 
lion of Cf.sti.le and boon, wa3 carved and plnood over the great fironlaee 
la the Mia ballroom, Long red draperies, shot with void and 0r.0hr.3i sin?; 
the vivid Sp&nieh colors, hang at the ro.n* s windows, Tha tea tlr^bor 
doore, reinforced and dooor&teu with wrought iren, were cade at the post, 

A patio built behind tho olub is deoorcted with Spanish lr-'-rworst a 
and grills and pnvod with old brick hauled iVon Fort Feint. Cuc.ll build- 
ings attached to the club proper were rebuilt, reroofed, and rofirisbed to 
conform to the plan of tha -sain building. 

Two of the bronta eanncnc before the club - those flanking the sntrwisa 

n° . 

- are the Podar and the San Tedroi thee* two, together vith tho two (in 

torching Square) and the two at tha quarters of the Copreanuins General of 

tho Fourth Array at Fort 'Jaaon, ore six of the eijht carmens forming the 

original armament of the Castillo do San Joaquin, Tho last two of tho 

original eight have not been found, Tha date of casting, 1073, e.p;«&rs cn 

both of those, as does the coat of arms of Spain, On oaoh a cryptic legend 

baffled observers until 1330, when Douglas D. Watson uolvod the rystwry ;l.r 

tho reft tiers of tho California 'lu tsrlcal Society 0-qartorly , tho words 

"Gwvorruin" "Polloiscno* , “liosdelare", *Alaudion", and ’'Ciad<Jll^.>a ,, , -hwit 

arranged In intelligible order, oonprliio the oentonoe "Oovermnrto loo Conorc 

do la Uoal Audioncia de Liiia" (Hi© Gentlemen of tlie P.oynl Audience of blruo, 

®B Audit KT T!K C0L3ES OATS 

The Presidio or San Franolsoo 271 

Governing)* th* Audlenela tab in 1373 th* viceregal body in Lin, Peru, 
rulin* 'Jq-3 Spain, The old o*.*v«>na »»ro oast in South Auerien. 

Tlur ComndAncla \*aa used as a residency by all Pru«lr;io ry»-.v:r1t rto a 
during tbo Spanish and Mexican periods* "Kith th* othur buildings o t:i* 
first pariiBncnt Proaltlio, it fonaed part of a stc-c'.aide surrounded by a 14- 
foot ndabo wal». According to early accounts, of floors ar.ti enlisted v&n 
etntlened at the post wem badly shaken - physically end mentally - when the 
1«12 earthquake otruok the tiny settlezant. Almost til of the original build 
Inga were deatreyed, including the church* The atcutly conatruoted Coffondan- 
eia, J» trsever, withstood the check, and today it snares with ilia a Ion Dolores 
the distincticn of being ©a© of the two oldest hdeba building* of 3en 
Trcnoiaao, It was tire birthplace of 'Jirltzii Sinhardsca (daughter of LhriA 
Antonia i'*rtln«c and LTilliaa A, Uioh^rdcan), flrat child of Envlish-Lspanish 
parentage { 50 m within the pro 30 at boundaries of oan frvnciaco, 

13* Built as «l Post chapel before 1073, tho CHAPEL OF C4J5 It. 'T whore 
Catholic conrioos arc hoard (open to olvili aus for Sunday services ; j 15orag& 

A vo, at ond of llcca St*, with its turrotod spire ?.umc<ur»tcd by* a cross that 
standr, con» 30 foot above the ground, roseufeles a aiuiftture Kew England vil— 
logo ohuroh. Its fclcjraing gilt crosses and cpio-ar.d-sren yellow paint, it a 
neatly clipped lawn and shrubs and 0 re fully tended flower beds era eloquent 
of oonatunt cam. the enclosed entrance with its peaked roof leads to an 
immaculate interior furnished with 13 old-fcr.hioned pows cushioned rlth red 
plush* Images guard tho c-nall white altar, and stained glass windows of 
ancient Spanish origin ulicU a toft light within the ch&pol# 

14* A redwood narkon 30 yxrds north of the intersection of Fur. 0 ton on: 
Worogs Avoo. nark* SLXEEG3E2 used during the Spcnish-Ajaorlcen '.•'or a 1 

Ibe Trcsidio of Sen FrartoLsao 


omapground by two Volunteer . Infantry Fog limit* - the 15th Minnesota »nd l*t 
Ibnnessea - a swell as by other participating units, 

15. The oxtreao southern end of McArthur Ave. enoirolee FL PCLI1J SFRI1.'3, 
called by tha Spanish O jo tie /gi-A t*.oi Folia , one of the two sources of tho 
early Spanish garrison’ a water supply, now distinguished by a redwood laarbsr 
oat in the olusp of willow trees. A o cording to sn Indian legend, Matrons 
who drank those waters wore assured of unusual fortuity. Twenty children 
ware born to tho kirasontes, who cnco lived near tho spring* and the first 
wife of V«"tlii£a D. Menard ( early San Franciscan), on tho advioo 
of Sonora lilrasaontas, visited tho spring and was "blessed with a lovely 
little daughter" after having boon childless for several years* 

13, A redwood Barker at McArthur Avo. end Portola St. rarks tho SITS 
Of ??ji UISSIC3 DOLOHSS-FKESITIO T. IAIL. Funning east and south from tha 
C oirar.da -iola. tho trail passed soar this point end followed the little valley 
which runs southeast to tho preoont reservation boundary near Laurel Ays* 
fros. there it followed a winding course serosa the sand hills to the mission 
the northern terminus of El Cer.ino Peal (The King’s Highway). People on 
foot, in oxcarts, and on horseback - bound for ions , raarri sgee, and 
funerals - pcaicd over tho trail* and bora© over it for burial at Mission 
Pcloros wore tha bodies of Procidio oo»vmdf ntoa Uorega and Argucllo. 

17. Within tbs former southern limits of C<usp Uerrioca, the CAtlPSXTS 
OF TFIH 51st .'0AJ3£37 OF 72S *TA VOUZiKTR I'TFAJJTTiY ie mrkod by a bronee 
tablet pi a cod on a two-foot snniosnt of native atone. Colonel John £. 

Loper eoarsanded this regiment, which aaw actiro corvioo in tho Philippine:? 
during tho Spenish-Amarican V.'ar • 

10. Tho yellow, ono-story frame 5CCST Bl’ILPFJC, Roger St. In Fast 
Cantonment, is the headquarters for Boy Soout Troop 77, Brownies Pack 11&* 

- 63 

The Presidio of Saa Francisco 


tnd Troops 13 sad 03 of tho Cirl Scouts. The 123 zaenber* of Troop 77 ere 
•one of Arsy s*nj an tiOT3 instructor is their SooutaMtor. The Cirl Scouts, 
who need not bo ssenbors of still tar/ fanilies, ore at the services of clubs 
end churches es ushers end attendants for ell occasions on wViioh they jasy 
be useful. 

19. Three lens yellow frtcae building* rest of the Proaidio ' t C-rcetsriah 
Stroet entrance house tto KSAPTdARTSRS OP TES 1ST MILITARY A PLIA AUD 9137 
rCRTKKHN CALTFOHHIA MILITARY DISTRICT. General aUainiotrative prouless of 
the State* • Hosorvo Officers’ Coras ero handled in tho headquarters of tho 
lot Unitary Area and 91ct Division. Tho problsas of tha Corps In northern 
Cal if err. La are oloacod through tho Headquarters of the Northern California 
Military District* 

20. The SITS OF CAM? WMRRIA.5.? Is indicated by a narker at the intersec- 
tion of Huger St. and Lincoln Bird. A S paniah-Annr loan ~‘ar onoarapiacnt, Cfusp 
Uorritufi extonded north and couth fren this point. Tbs camp was established 
by La.Jor Gen, H.C.i'orriari, oo-arwndor of tho Dept, of Coluirbia and Californio, 
whan E,0C0 sen fron tho Paoiflo states began to assemble at tho Presidio 

on May 6, 1893, in anowar to President McKinley's first call for volunteers* 
Tho Volunteer P.erjlsants of Infantry cncsreped ho re included the 1st and 7th 
California, 61at leva, 1st Idaho, 20th Lanaac, 1st How York, and let So.Dakc 

21. The AR1Y YLAA (epen to A try personnel and guests 1-10 on Eun-Fri, 

9 p n - midnight Sat. | r.ouoership free). Torney /vo. and Linooln Blvii. oc- 
cupies a T-shaped, threo-otory, brown stuooood building roofed with red tile 
E'.iilt et a coat of tI- 5,400 for the 191S Panama-Pacific Intornor.ionfil "xpoci- 
tlon, it first stood on tha fair's Avor.uo of Kationa and was known as tho 
Enlisted Lea's Club House, ;.'«re than 60,000 visited it during tho tncpooitlo 


The Ercsidio of 6tn IVonoieco 


Aft«r th* fair the etruotur* was moved to its present alto I tiro rear wing 
*a* ad fed in 1024. 

IVo largo clubrocsie collate with gaice table*, writing desks, reading 
eeotivis, a cantoon, and a soda fountain oooupy tha atroot floor. ;)<*ro- 
et&irs, speotator gellarloa overlook tha gynnaslua and swlxaing pool. Hero 
also a rrA-suporviood, prc3cncol kindergarten eooersodates young children of 
rrosldie officer*. The upper floor holds a ballroom with a stage and tires- 
sing rooais (until 1«>S3 this vns tbs Post Theater, where notion ploturee wo ro 
ste!, Y1XA activities include wt-en*# recreational classes, bi-weekly 
ewlssuing classes ?cr young boyp end girls, end eeacl-aonthly dances vpcnsortd 
by tl>a Boy'o Presidio Athletic Club Orchestra. Too (iray) '"o-rsr.’a Club, 

2oys* Presidio Athletic Club, and Girls* teb Club root in this building. 

22, On 45 eerae in tha northeastern part of tha reservation are the 
«M end two-otory, oonorcte end rw» buildings of IhTZJUAlfT GlfklV I. ECSPIUAI 
(visiting hour* 2-4 and 6»SO-S dally) - 23 permanent end Cl temporary struc- 
tures, »any of which ere oortr.ected by glassed- In rarips. Tho second largest 
military hospital in the United States, iettornan now iiaa 32 wtirda with a 
1,250 bed espaoity, n highly trainod staff of sooo 1,012 persons in all 
ofttegoriee, ar-d the best surgeries and dispensaries available* (flans are 
under way In 1341 for expansion to a 1300-bed capacity.) It has a library 
of 12,500 volumes, reading roeras and radios'. It operates ita ptwor 
plant, lauridry, and ocmiaoary. 

Aa one of eight Array general hospitals. Lettonaan rooaivos for defini- 
tive treatment the taore eerlous onso* fro-u Alaoka, I'uoarja, and nuurby 
T'ostcrn States and tho sick returned from transpacific! etwtiens. In addi- 
tion to tho cctivo end retire- military personnel, dopondento of offloore 
and enlisted ron and the soaber# of tho CCC are also accepted. koro than 

Tbs Presidio of Son Frtmcioeo 


18,000 out-patients ars tr&sted annually* 

In 13l£, following, Arariean occupation of California, the Presidio hos- 
pital *«« known as the Station Hospital. Celled the "Post Hospital , Prosidio 
of Con l'rcnoisco* after tha Civi 1 tor, it t»8 ranaaed "United Gtateu Arty 
General Hospital, San Frond sco Prosidio" on Cocoa bar 1, 1333, untar Oonoral 
Order Ko» 182. After tho bpanich-AiHerioaii «'or, when trrnsports fren tho 
Philippines returned hundreds of casualties, acrecgo, bul ldirs^s , end staff 
wore iucrouaod. Burin; tho 1008 fire tha institution - than under Col. 
Coor-a H« torney, Madioal Corps - ononod its doers to sick and inhered 
oiviliens. On Eov. 23, 1011, it was raaanad to honor ilajor Jonnthr.n 
lettornan, Kedlcal Director cf tha Array of tho* Pctoa&o, or janitor in 1531 
of tho first Aubulanoe Corps in tha Union Array. 

23. Salv&’O froa tha Castillo da San Joaquin in 1054 provided 
mtcricl for tha STATIC'S DICCrCSARY, or Post Hospital, Funston Ava. rtsar 
Lincoln Bird. Tho tlie-roofod, ye 1 lew-and-Yrhite , threa-story froro bulldln~ 
iu act on a high brera -brick foundation. A {^lass-enclosed balcony fronts 
tho third floor} a wooden bn lustra, ted open balcony, tho second. A- IvBxnf.onai 
three-story franaa tower, tha old operating rooms, no* occupied by tha Centre 
Dental laboratory, adjoins t!» northwest corner of tho r».ln building. Sinca 
1CS1 the dispensary has served as a station hospital and post olinio for tho 
Presidio personnel. It offers eiok-oall, out-patient service, dental eurqor 
end physical examinations* 

24. Tha SCHOOL TOR HAFIRS ABD COOKS (Company A, 05th Quartenaastor 
Battalion), ha Hook St., CO yard* north of Lincoln Blvd. in a lonr, oroara- 
colorod, tro-atory concrete building which faoes tho Bf.y, offers a four-: ton* 
o:urae to 75 soldier students - 65 potential cooks, 10 bokora, Tha instrue« 
tion is toolmioal and praotical} tljo subjects lnoludo dietetics, ear.itaticn 



7515 ARlS At TIT" QflDD* GABS 276 

7hO Presidio of San Francisco 

and quantity food preparation, About 2,000 loaves of broad — enough for all 
Bay region ailittry re serrations - are baited dallyj such greater quantities 
oan bo produced In eaorgenoics* During tho susocr pupils operate raa. scos for 
the CSJIC and the F.CK at Fort Crd, California, Conducted in conjunction is a 
pastry sohool and a field baioory oeapssy, a notorized unit that eon provido 
broad for 20,000 con, 

the sohool was founded in 1221, three years after the firrfc A rs<y oookory 
unit originated at Fort Hilcy, Kansas, There ere 12 such units In this 
country end throe overseas, 

26, Onoe a raoetraoi:, built on a flllsd-in-olough, CRIS3Y FIT U), a 
strip of lend 400 feet wide and 5200 feet long, extends along the Say front 
on a large part of the site of the Fanasa-P&oiflo Exposition, The location 
rr&v ehooca for an airport in July 1313 by S£aJ, Henry H. Arnold, Corps Area 
Air Officer and (in 1340} Itaj, General, Chief of Air Sorrioe, Trane ooatinen-* 
t&l reliability and enduraroo tests ware here in 1919 despite the 
field's United size, Aftor the death of tejor Dana Crissy, during the 1919 
transcontinental recos, the present rmrao was adopted. The hungers end other 
bull dingo vara conploted on June 20, 1021, The field vaa abandoned os an 
air base in 1933. on ooaplution of Fanil ton Fiald, It has been used for 
teotlsis transport end equipnwnt of notorized units end is at present rapidly 
being covered with additional temporary iVwao barraoico and storehouses to 
be used during the " emergency” , 

2G, On the southern edgo of Crleny Fiold, a redwood laarkor on an Iron 
poet indicates tho SITS CF Bit TTORLO TOR CAKT^llthr, In tho area imcdiat <Zf 
north of this mrker, the 216 buildings of Forth Cantoraant housed troops 
wliloh participated in the Horid ~ar» Anang the troops and units quartered 
hero wore the 12th, S2nd , end G3d F.eginento of Infantry, 

the A.**sr at Tin ^i.nrr, hats 

The Presidio of Can Francisco 


27* The E»y# two-story, tilo roofed building facing the west e:si of 
Crlooy field, TrdADTr!A!?rna3 OP PbESICIO ABD 50th irmST.TY, is tho oloorinc 
bouoo for the local administrative problem of tho Prooidio Post nnd.Eosorv- 
fttloa and of tho 30th Infantry* 

S3* At tho troot ond of Crlsoy Field, surf non of tho UNITED STATIC 
COAST OTA SO (r~"J POIIET) STATICS (open to visitors dally upon pomlaslen of 
tho Dirtrlat c<~rrvndor ) have boon on duty elnoo 1915, Built during tho 
Panasjtt-Pbciflo Imposition as a lifo-navin^ station, the two-story from min 
barracks and headquarters sumruntod by a wutahtosor stand behind hi#* croon 
hedges | at the water's od^o are a pior and a ono-atory boatfious®, Ad joining 
the bfu*rooka across a driveway is tho two— ctory chin,~lod frnne Captain's -Snor- 
ters, pointed a far-visible white, *ftia principal function of this unit of tho 
reservation is to rosouo victim of capsized boats, vmuld-bo ouicidas off tho 
Goldon Cato Bri-lpo, end floundering rndtraara, Chile tho Air Garvico wao cta- 
tionod at Crinsy Field, tho Coast Guard played an important rolo in oevoral 
roBouos of aviators whose pianos had orashod, fforkins Fnoilitlos include u 
crash boat, a eonainkablo lifeboat, a pulling « urf boat, piokot boat for patrols, 
and boaoh ftp-aratua, 

Tjkj Coast Guard, first ostablidiod ao the Bovtmtw ibrlna on August d, ITS; 
later tsaa known w$ t]«» pevonuo Cutter Servioo and finally in 1915 as tho Coast 
Guard, Tho Bay ration personnel nunbors approximately 700 offiooro end non, 

29, Tho SO woll-tondod r.crco of tl» KATI02A1, MILXT/.EY C:M*S T(Y, south 
of tho karina-Ooldon Cato Brid^o approach, contain tho graves of Id, 500 enlisted 
wn and offiooro, Juat vfithln tho ornate iron entrance gate stands an imposing 
gran i to raonuruont with a brensa plaque bearing Lincoln' a Oettyebu rg Address, 

- 75 - 

rns at r.-d g-lboh hats 

The Presidio of San Prur.oioeo 



Directly north of tlx» ccraetory and ths Urid-o reap lias a string of dismantled 
ooost artillery cnplaoewrafca* Beyond is the pancrana of the Bay and its 
islands, the thrln hills, and the gigantio red-leaded piers of the Roldan Rate 

On July £3, 1032, rrivnte John Drown of Coapony "IT*, 2d Infantry, died 
at Yua a, Arizona, and hia burial was — tho first interment in the corsstory* 

By 1004, when £17 known end 13 unknown soldiers had been interrod, the official 
designation of tha burial ground was node through on order signed by Lieutenant 
General Tho censtory was expanded and tho bodies wars transferred tharo 

fren tha cercetorieo at old Fort Kltsnath, or eg on | Fort Colville, toahinctoni tho 
Lava Bods (scene of tha l&doo Indian far) in northeastern California! and fj-on 
old Fort Grant, Arizona* Among tho Pktous soldi or s buried within its walla 
arc !>.jor Gansralo Hunter Liggott, TTodorick Fuaaton, cad Irvin JtoDowoll* It 
also includes tha graves of Private i/ill iers Hood, who acted as an engincor in 
the o^aolotion of tha Control Faolfio Hailrond, and that of Pauline C* Tylor, 
the actress sfio carved as a Union spy and who was oomlssionod Brevet jar at 
the end of the Civil far* A hco.dfid.ona inscribed "Two-bit" honors an early Ind- 
ian interpreter* v.Lcr\ the Rational Military Ceraotory is filled, the osw Golden 
Cato national c<r-«tory (14 ulleo to tha south) in Can Mateo County will be 
ready for use* 

30* A corker at TJont Paoifio Avo* and Arguello Blvu., on tho southern 
edge of the Presidio, narks the northern end of tho 3ITH 0? CAMP UEIJniT* The 
residential district stretching couth, vnrd rmo n region of sand dunaa in 1033 
when r<?g fro9j nost of the Postern Btotoa wore quartarod here at tho 
outbreak of tha Spanioh^Vaorioon V-'ar, training for service in the rhillippinoo* 

*> 74 «• 

- thr Aicnr a? rrr. cnnrj: av?s 

The Proa id io of Con rramlsoo 


81« The JTLIU3 EAIET n-AYCith’iUD (open 12-0 weekdays, 10-0 cun, ) ft six- 
* on) pork like arc* noar the southeastern owner of th« reservation at tho 
northern end of Cpruco Jit*, offers a orlckot fluid, four tennis courts, backot- 
boll court, two soft bull diamonds, n nymaotlo eooticn, and a playground for 
small children, Acquired under ft 90-yoar rovoimblo loose on duly £4, 1022, 
the playground is operated by and for fan Francisco, It was mused la tenor of 
the lute Concreasaun Julius Cohn, ehairnon of tho Uilitory Affaire Coiaait-fcoo, 

B, R«, CJiairnan of tho National Dofoneo Jvnapio (1913), ooouthor of tho L’utional 
Eefonno Act (1915), author of tho Selective Draft Aot (1017), and a strong 
supporter of tho Phtioml Defonso Aat of 1920, which rownanisod tho Amy* 

32* The Btory-and-a-h&lf fraae clubhouse of tho P-iSSIDIO COL? CLt>3 
L1T3K3 (open to A tray porconnol aryl -mo --its Q—5tCO workdays, ft— 3 wa., pro or, f oa 
$1,00 voohdayg, $2,00 fat, , fun ,, and hvllduyu ), la loaatod cno block frua 
Arcuollo &vd* at 0 Proaidio To rrtco, Tho 13-iiolo, CMO-yard oourso, with par 
of 72, covoro 1C2 of tho Prcsidio*s oouthorraoat acros, on gently rolling hille 
that afford hazards n.8 wall as beauty, 

S3, At tho northern end of Furk-Prooldio DlvJ,, waot of the Kuna ton 
Avenue— 3ol don Hato Drid^o Approach, ore IJOtnfTAXlJ 1.AXB wad tho DJJ ASJA C/JDt; ITH. 
Tho little lake, fed entirely fren ground-wtor seepage, lies in a sheltered 
depression, overlooked on the oast by Presidio Gulf Club Greens* on tho west, 
by tho Karina Hospital, baterfowl find sanctuary horo under Govsrntaant pro- • 
teotion* On itroh 27, 1770, Lioutonnnt Colonel Eon Juan Bautista do Ansa, 

Fray Pedro Font, Lieutenant Joae Joaquin ibraga, and soldiers fren fubao, fax' 
to Dio southeast, canpcd "on tho banka of a fine lalro , , , no nr tho mouth of 
tho Port cf Can rrncoiuoo," at t!ie end of a long and hazardous expedition mdo 
to establish Dio Proaldio, can Frcacl&oo'o Jllcicxmd residential district new 

Tnr. hvcn a? tie ocLtrfi gats 

The Presidio of ana fruaolsoo 


crowds within e few hundred yards of the Inis* shore# Plans of the Mountain 
Lake tfater Company, promoted in 1051, to supply tho olty with water frun this 
lake were halted by bankruptcy after §400,000 hod boon spent tunnelling tho 
Presidio hills and buildinr. a brick flume to carry water to a purapirv: station 
fit the foot of Van Boss Avenue# In bull din- the bridge approach in 1033 it 
was nocossnry to encroach upon tho west eharo of the labs, thu3 roduoini the 
historic little shoot of water to about wie*«half Its criciaal area# 

5d. Tho CTIT3D STATES WHIES HOSPITAL (vicltlnr hoars 1~3), a scroll itarj 
unit, operated cinoa July 1, 1033, by tjna Federal Security Adainiatration, is 
located on 3D acres within the reservation* o southern boundary# Tho elx-atery, 
oraan-oolorod brick administration building end a sooro of srallor, tilo-rcofod, 
croaa-colorod brick end froaa buildin-a wore ccnplatod between 1320 and 1932# 
First oponod cn hinoon Hill, April V, 1C53, the hospital was removed to the 
Presidio on JuaolS, 1070# lUrina hospitals were created under tho Doicrtcwat 
of the Treasury to ocribat cholera, yollow fovor, and general unsanitary conditio 
existing arson* coanon# Assessments of 20jf (later roicad to 40 /) a nonth fir. "ft 
levied against sea-an In the federal employ to maintain the hospitals wore 
abolished in 18C4# Marine hospitals now oxTor froo hospitalisation to tlse 
jssn (and ftenilioa ) of tho Ccor.t Guard and of tho Coast and Coodotio Survey and 
to all Federal employees injured on duty, 

30# A redwood narker placed by tho /my boaido Lobos Crook whore the 
otroaa io bridged by Lincoln 31 vd. dooi{?»tco the SITE 0? SAI5 i'HAHCIECQ’a 
FIP.5T T.’AT'.T! SUPPLY# Lobos Crook, San Fr&uoicoo County * 0 only ctreaa, flows 
woeterard frra tho Uorino Hospital to Dakar's Conch j it tecs caned Arroyo del 
Puerto (Volley of tho Port) by Ansa in 177G# Durinc Cold Rush days water 

?2t3 r.xtt AT OT? »V&!E3 CATS 

The Presidio of ten. Frtmoisoo 

trm tho crock was poddled in C*n Franoineo, In oonpotltloa with captain 
trillion t’iohard.iun’o spring water frcn Causal ito* When tho growing rillago 
required a. larger supply, tlie ten Frftnoiooo nUtsr 'Arks In 1057 built a wooden 
dan across loboa Crook end, through flurao, tuanol, and pipo, oarriod water aroundl 
fort Point and tiso Presidio to a p'-rsphouso at the foot of "Am Naas .vromto* This 
eonrloe eontinuad until 1S94* Curing t5» next 16 yoara a series of 110-foot 
wells cuppllod t}>o Amy with tmtor* Sinco 1910 water has boon diverted fro® 
the etreaa to tho punning station near labor's Deaah end tlianco raised to re- 
servoirs supplying tho Proaidlo, Porta lias on end Soott, and Angel end Aloatitus 
Islands* This water, supploaontod by the output of 4 of the original 17 .‘ioun- 
tain Leka trolls, supplies the Presidio’s needs* 

Bisnrra ntnA 

The ijnxf at the Guidon Gate 


III, KhT 3 IT, 7!2! BAY hSTJi 

- 73 

vs Has at rjn couch gate 


tranHAL IHr'CratVTIf'H 

An A: ry poat la & pl&co whoro ft body of* troops la stationed. limy 
Amy posts ero rJ.lltn.ry reservations* that io, tracts of public land sot 
apart for military purposes. 

Some posts iixilude within thoir Units liphthousos, coast jpiord 
stations, crj other installations not under the diroot control of ti» post 
ocesaonder or of t)» War Siopartnaat, 

Conditions of A&tlsnlati 

Access to Amy posts in the 2 ay area is usually available to civil* 
ions tSio early with regulations rocanlinc hours, traffic, avoidrcioo of, etc* 

Forts nalitr. Dorr:,’, Croiihito, find Pirwton era restricted arenn not 
Open to tho public at any tioo* Cotdola Arsenal is clcood to the publio. 
Practically all other pests conirostrictod military echos for tlso 
poriod cf tho orxir~cncy, Forcers on official business, iiouovur, or civil* 

^iono calling on nilitjrv n«rsn»»l-rasidiKT on military reservations ore inr* 
Bitted ontry, hi Glanya if rou~h cortnin military ureas — moil as 

Arnvwllo Boulevard toil Irosidio . -vsa» in the oroaidio of baa Francisco — arc 
open to traffic only throughout tho day. 


* * * *i * » * ■■■ »* m * ■ ■ — » 

Fort Fas on* “l? 1 ears to Poet station duriny. duyll.^ifc liours on 7-«inut< 
schedule (accept fun, ) during day* hourly after nidniijrt, "F” euro roes to 
Oats, f»y ft, and Von boss Avo. Uo, 19 boa £ooa to Bay and l\>lic bts*, 
within ono blech of liln Cato, 

Knniltcn Field* Husoes doily fr can ’•ro.diound Depot, 6th and LELsoion 
Sts,, Son irunoiscoi 60/ cna way, 95/ round trip, 

itoffott Field i Trains doily fr an Southern Pacifio Dopot, 3rd end 
Townsend,, fan ; rmioieco, to Fountain View* 75/ ono way, 11,10 t\r.avi trip 
Taxi service fro?* Southern ittoifio Depot* YF/ cno way, :;1,00 round trip. 
Busses from Sroyhound Do;>ot| VC/ cno v.ay, Cl«10 round trip. 

Fort i’ofowollt U, 0, Amy boats operate on ropular schedule from a 
fort Bason vdiarf at foot of Van Koso Avo»j 9 trips doily* first boat at 

- 73 

ms ahst at m: gold;:* gate 

Arsy Posts in tho Day Aroa 


tub nwyyjH dstwres np cab pia'ciaco 

To th» /Tty nt tho Cold on Cato has boon eatruotod tha duty of provid- 
ing dofonsoa for tho Port of San Franoicoo* Anorloon nil it ary oncincoro, 
following tho osunplo of tho Spaniards* took oarly ndvantafps of tho ruqqod 
ielor.da mil pranontortoa which fora natural ronparts for eaplaoooont of urthuuA 
declined for const dofonsoj end, as wodon worships and caooth-horo runs \.v*i*c 
roplacod by vooools of a tool with noro fcraldablo arcionont, tho fortifications 
of tho Ooldon Onto wro increased and nodarniRod, "To thoso alio aro v/illinq t- 
taJco the natter of defensive urnrca&nt in faith end tho cutliorlty of conpotont 
criti oa,“ wrote Ccnpto La Chases in tha Ovorland Monthly in 1000, "It way bo 
asserted that ^en Francisco harbor is tho no at scientifically end ccrapotantly 
protected harbor on tha Atlantia or Pacific seaboard." Any appraisal which 
‘ sight' bo Efido * in 1940 tiould reveal tlmt irrpro vwionta, tnrsy still in proouco of 
ooaplction, 4?ara boon mdo ever since in on attempt to noot all tx*l«m defence 
raqui rauon ts at tha Golden Cato tho oontrolins factor, of course, boinc tho 
status of public opinion an to tha dangers encondcrod by tho vrerld citation « 
an opinion invariably raflootod in tho various legislative bodies and also in 
tho largcer oilitary phases), 

Fort Tfinflold noott 

FO’ff WISril'XD SCOT? (open to tiin rublio ), Headquarters of tho Cccrxmdi: 
Officer of San rranoinoo«o harbor deforces, oooupies a ruggod coactal tract 
overlooking tho Bay, tin nettled range of hills across tho Golden Cato, end 
FftmoiBoo’o northern skyline, In 1012 Port VTinfiold Soott was designated a 

• 80 «* 

Amy roots in t:» Day Area 

port separate Aron tho rroaJUJIo — of which its roeorvatlon bad boon on integ- 
ral pert oinoo tho arrival of Ansa's survey party on its hitfi ridge cn Idarch 
£3, 177C, "TIjo omvmdor decided to oroot the lloly Cross," wrote Father Podro 
Pont on that arrival, "on tho ©xtroc&ty or tho white cliff at tho lnswr point 
of tho entrance to tho port, and * • • we wont thither* Aaoonding a erall 
hill, wo at onao entered upon a very boro no&a of groat extent * * * and it 
iooopa getting unrrcwor until It ends right at Ui» white cliff." 

The “white oliff," on which the Caetillo do Sen Joaquin was to bo fcundoc 
17 years later, io new the southern onoharage of tho Golden gate Dridgo* and 
the bare neea daocrlbod by Father Font has been overgrown for half a century 
with groves of fir and eucalypti* Ardd thsso grovoa, boaidc the rood which 
traverse# the roocrvntion ^uat south of its min post, oro the gray stuccoed, 
red-roofed officers* quarters, surrounded by green lawns end badges* Tho 
poet’c haadquartors'buSldlncs and a row of terra ako partially « nolo so a ciroul; 
plot of turf bordered by pains and flower bods* Peart hinfiold gcott'o aottisc 
lends a glenor to tho carnal tdlitary activities with which it constantly is 
oooupiod* Sl:x>« 1D21 it has boon designated the official post to return culut. 
of foreign vessels of war vi citing tho Port of Sen Preaoiaoo* 

The cnSooutivo con tor of harbor defenses for the Pnoifio Coast oro U.a 
nSADQCASOTRS OP TO DOT COAST AtfTH.LhKT DISTRICT, Housed in a two-story gray- 
stucco od building roofed with red til a* It was erected in iDIO and tins ninco 
boon landscaped admirably with wide lawns bordored with oiirubo, lilies, and 
pino eaplingo* 

Tho JSSADTJAKSftS OP THE GOT AW GB7I! COAST AHTILLhlff ocoupy a dnr’r- rrr, 
stuooood structure of two storioa also erected in 1010 and uleo android by r 

TES !<Z23 AT T.V. Of-Lffa OATS 
Amy foots in tho Hoy a m 


mll-ieept, fl osrcr— bordered la\m* Tho Sixth Coast Artillory Roglwjnt was org-an- 
isod in XC03 wlion it aos«ihled at th* Presidio for duty in tho Ifcillppinns* 

Upon its return it tras assigned by catteries to rarious posts at Furot Sound, 

Fort Dakar, and tho Presidio* vd*n tho rorinsnt was reorganised in 1501, .'Vit- 
torios D end 0 leonae tho 12th and 15th field ‘rtilloryj tho roaaininf! 12 bat- 
toriea, tho GOth to 71st Coast Artillery Companies inalunivo. in 1012 tho Coast 
Artillery novnO fren Hie Presidio to its now barracks at Fort Flnfiold Soott* 

Tho only oonpanioo to roach Franco during tho »?crld bar ■war© tho Clot cu;d G7th, 
which carved an Batteries C and 9 of tho First Antiaircraft Battalion* Tho 
fertwr gained dictinotion in t5u> Si. JhJiiol end Uauco-.'a*Gonno offonoivco, bagging 
nine oneay plosoa* In 1024 tho mabor of eerganlos was redwood to 11, with ro*» 
Cinental Ijoadouartero at Port Winfield Soott. 

Tni» yollow colonial-fltylo V.T.S? FOIL? r PEPAJIATOBY SCHOOL, stand in-’ near 
tho entrance to tho reservation on o knoll plan tod with Iceland noss, oc.lcota 
by conpetitiva examinations coldior-oandicatoa for tha United state » j'llitary 
Acadteny at Vest point. Clnoo catablisJiaont of tho eohool in 1021, 74 of its 
candidates have boon accepted by hoot Point. 

At the er.trenoa to Fort Winfield Scott ftro TA'O 201X5AS CTJL'3. Those largo" 
caliber, cnooth-horo guns were ft part of the battery counted along the western 
bluff of tiio rciwrvation until roplaood by nod orn ordnance. Invented by Conoral 
Podncn of the Ordn-uco Corps, they wore ranufaoturod in 1308 by the tad-valo 
Stool Company* s oet point Foundry* T5» guns were loaded with 35~pound charts 
of hexagonal pewdor and 100-pound pro^ootilog. 

A landrsnrk of t]>a reservation* 0 pact is OLD FOB? YfTJlFIiiLD SCOTT, viQlblo 
fron t!w couth end of tho Goldon Gate Bridge* The low sholf of rook upon which 
tho old fort elands la all that resnins of tho preoantery on rdiioh stood 'die 

- 82 

ttsn at rnn 'Jojjit; cats 

Amy Tecta la the Day Area 


Castillo do Can Joaquin, ocaplotod by tho Spaniard* in 1704, j tho proncr.tory 
ut blasted Cray in 1CS3, Archibald Uonaies, botanist on board tho chnthna, 
which brought Captain Coorc® Vancouver on Me second visit to tho Hay in 1793, 
thus describes tho building of tho oast ill oi "TTo now obaarvod a nvsabor of 
people oonleyed on tho cesinonoo on tho South side of tlvj catranoo oloaring tsny 
tho ground for tho purpose of creating a Dattory for the dofonoo of tho harbor 
and a coro suitable situation could not bo fixed on, as it porfeotly ccraands 
tho entrance," Tho construction, begun in August, 1733, aaclctod by C O 
noopiqrtos drafted Cron Ktosion Santa Clara tad S3 yoko of oxon caployod ta haul 
t ichor, burnt ttdobo brick, and finally tia> guns, which woro nountod in onbre- 
euros cn the persist of the fort, Suilt in tho fora of a horsoohoo, with a 
10»foot adobo vail end a pomlar mgasino braced with roduood, tho Castillo 
was garrisoned by a oaptnin, a oorgoenti and 11 son. 

Although tC,dC0 v®: epont on construction of tho Castillo do can Joaquin, 
tho etruoturo ten inoupablo of withstanding eithor arced at took or t!ia clones* c, 
Don Albert o Cordova, lioutonsnt of engineers tnsroctiigating tho coast dcfancoa 
of Alta California, report od to Viceroy do Srcnoifcrto tint part of tho cngblllo 
was built cn sand oad that only tso of its gw is faced tbo harbor antr&jtcoj i“ur*» 
tbsmaro, tlio fort? woo dominated in th« roar by txx unfortified hill, and its 
garrison ~ cron reinforced by tho Presidio* s cavalry troops «•» was inadequate 
to mn vb.o 13 guns then in position, 

Robuilt vith brick and stone in 1C1G» its nrracnont inoroaeod to 30 runs, 
the Castillo do fan Joaquin ~dth frcqusrA repairs — wcathorod ston-ia wv i 
official neglect for 09 years, Tho Spanish ensign was then replaced by tho 
Ifei.ican tricolor. Finally, in IC30, uost of gar r icon v«-.s sent to roiuforco 

Vallo^o*a eotruaid at Gonorau lly 1G37 tho old fort vmo alxndonod, ito crarrsx it 
roducod to 0 iron {puns (three usolooa fren exposure) 0 brans® guns (one uaolooa } 


n 03 

TH3 amt /.? nr-: n-xirai oats 

Amy Foot* in tho Day Area 


some 900 balls* and 4 Baskets* 

Its ocnditicn mu even worse on that July day in 1040 whan it ms taken 
over by Captain John C* Frefeaont and a jarty consisting of Kit Curoon* ldoutenarrtt 
Archibald Gillespie of the Ifarina Cerpa, Captain Ti'illica D. liiolpa of t ha 
who supplied tho lcn^—bcct by which the party had croc sod tho Day fron Saucalito, 
sad Soso SO others* Free* Captain rbolpc* trodaroos o eao aloo suoh tool 3 as 
"orcrcbcrs, cooa and round files to opiko tho guns with*" for hie oorvioca in 
this exploit fholpa later procantod a bill for CIO, 000 to tlie Cnitod S^.tco 
Covornaoatf In vua wvurded COO by unoniaous veto of tho Claims Cctxdaslon in 
1603* ciool files driven by Frotxwt into the vonta of tho oastlllo’a Iren 
and brass {pins had to bo drilled out with ecr» difficulty when, in 1046, those 
pieces were txucrtod with others on tho south aide cf Tol o^rttrh Hill to fora 
the battery (frost which San Prcnciooo*e : lottery St root derives its iazo) of 
"Fort UontijOawry" (abroidonod in IMS)* Four of tho guns now rest in tho Preci- 
&io j two, at Fort ?.5aaon* 

In 1S53 tho old caatlllo mis roaod by tho Chitod states Aroy and the 

bluff on which it had etood m» out down to tho water** edge* A now brie!: 

ctruoture (designed ccoowhat like Pert Hunter in South Carolina), completed in 

1001 at a cost of CD, 340,000, was protected fron ocean breakers by a cranito Boa 

wall* Quarters for personnel* supplies, and auaunition v*»ro provided within 

its fomidablo mile | largo ci sterna for storage of water ware cut in the solid 

rock beneath its floor j 143 n« 2 S of various oaliber end design wore nounted 

to defend it* First called Fort Point, it was ronanod in 1002 for Brevet 
p.outonsnt General v.'infiold Gcott# 

Old Port Goott in 1031 bcj~Gn operation of a fog boll and lookout station 
for the LI glit ho use horvioo* During tlw Spani oh-anorioftn bar it was oacupiod 


tie /js tz a? Tin; oomzt cats 

A nay Kota in the Boy Aroft 
by two batteries o f srtlll oryas a and throe ocaronios of tl« Oth California 
Volunteers* By 1£HX>, whoa construction was begun on a now post to bo oallod 
fort Winfield Coott, the old fort below tho white cliff had boo ops obsolete 
(its battery finally was abandoned in 1914s only its storage facilities are in 
use today)* 

Fort Ficreton 

Tho urea occupied by FC3 FCneTOH (cloeod to tho public), oncssc ocb» 
clad hills between lake JSercod and the city** western shoreline, was oolootod 
for a battery during tho Spanish^'noricon Per, During tho World xxjr tho v-rtXi 
was enlarged and ita criminal naao, tho l/vyjoa liarcod Military nasorvuticin, was 


chanced in honor of Ilijor General Frederick Fwioton, who died in 1017* 

* fort Baker 

■ W »■ « mm mm . ws 1 

Tho fmsobuil dingo of renr 3.*J£2 (closed to tho publio) lino a B-cltped 
parade ground cn a irset of rolling hlllc cn tlio north ehora of the Golden Gate, 
between Line Point end Point Cavallo* This poet was nanod ia 1S97 for Colonel 
Edward D, Ea kor, coEnsnder of the California Volunteers in tho Civil War, who 
vaa killed in action in 1001 at Ball*e Bluff, Virginia* Until 1904, Port Baker 
and Fort Barry (bo* boloi? ) were unite of tlie Line Point ICLlitory acserwtlcn 
(oatobliehod in 1CGG), a rugged coastal strip of 1,335 acres* Between loGB 
and 1073 work progrooaod otoadily on construction of buildings* roads ar« 
batter ioo on Idas Point ridge, Cravolly Bosch, and point envoi lo* Saso breast-* 
works otill renain near Battery Kirby* 


Iho Presidio of Son Franoisoo ' 

Fort Barry 

FCRT BAKHT (closed to tho pnbllo ) guards fro» ft rugged proaontory the 
outer entrano© to the Ooldon Cote* Its lighthouse tower dominates the white 
buildings of tho Point Bonita Life-Saving Station* This post was established 
in tho old Lins Point Reservation in 1S33* Under the direction of ISajor Go ore® 
B* Itendell, batteries were constructed which by 1372 contained 60 suns. A sep- 
arate post einoo the division of the reservation in 1504, Fort Harry was nomad 
in honor of Brevet Uajor General Billina F» Barry, veteran of the ISexicsn and 
Civil Tiers, who was prase ted for gallantry at the fall of Atlanta, Aneng its 
modem fortifications are Batteries Alexander, liendell, Guthrie, O’Rorko, and 
R&thbone * 

• • Fort Crorffhlto 

newest of ths harbor defenses is FCST CROTKHITS ( closed to tho nubile ), 
established in 1037 on the heights overlooking Torino o see Cove on the iior5ji 
County shore* It boors the name of Jiajor General Adalbert Cronkhite, veteran 
Of Indian campaigns and tho flpanish-Aaoriostn TTar, who cocraandod tho 30th Bivi- 
pton in tho Viorld Tfarj for his oervico overseas, ho rooelved the Diotinguiobecl 
Servico Vo dal, was made a Cocaaandsr in ths Fronoh Legion of Honor and a Knight 
Coras&ndor of the British Order of St, h'lchael and St* George* 

- Built entirely of stool and eonoreto. Fort Cronkhito is regarded as 
inprognablo to land, cea, or air attack* 

Fort hi Icy 

From a high ridge botweea Point Lobos and Land’s End, FCSiT HILLiY (clojrr 
to tho public ) overlooks tho Golden Cate and western San Franc iso o. The 64-«-t 
reservation was turned over to tho Array by Son fraaoisoo in 13G3j it lotor 

Tbs Presidio of Son Frsncieco 29l 

nsoed in honor of Lieutenant Colonel John D, Kile-/, who died at Until la in 1899* 
Proa above its pine-end fir- clad western boundary and the basalt olif f s of 
Land's End, the Spaniards obtained their first intimate view of the Golden 
Cate* On Doessbor 4, 1774* Tether Pranoisoo Palou, diarist of the Hirers expe- 
dition, wrote i *T7o ol tidied the ridrc, most of which ie level, a&ndy «ound, and 
when wo were on the eusait we sew that this rld-o forts the southern point of 
the south of the bay , , ,* 

Lsnsoapod and constructed arohitooturally in the Califomia-Spcnish- 
Uayta manor, the nomilitary VSTEHAE3* ADlfniS CIA TICS FACILITY ( vlsltlr.- 
hours 2-4, 7-9 doily ), Clement St, at 42 d A vs,, with its 21 etuooood buildings 
Standing among Fcnterey cypresses and winding driveways, presents an imposing 

sight, This hospital was erected in 1934 at a coot of $1,350,000* Although 


there ere 90 veterans' facilities in the country, this is one of the threo 
groat .dio -noetic . oentorn in the Katlcnj the others ore at Chiosgo and 
Washington, D, C. 

Basically, this facility serves as ths headquarters for disabled t ; orld 
War veterans seeking ocopenaation adjustments or special nodical core in a 
Govorasent hospital, Specifically, it accepts all general nodical or surgical 
oaaos in northern Calif omit j in addition, it handles all problem oases and 
brain surgery oases for the 22 Western States, This institution is adminis- 
tered separately from tha Fort Filey military reservation, which has boon a 
eubpost of the Presidio since 1911, 

Ycrt>a Buem island 

YERUA. D’-JEHA I31A13) (closed to tho pv.bllc ), oon feral anchorage for the 
suspension and oantilever opens of the San frenoisoo-Cakland Bay Bridge, is 


Tho Presidio of Can Francisco 6 

* 400-c.are reservation shared by units of tbs Arty, Havy, and Cosat Guard# 

On its eastern slop* (whose 545-foot avesait la pie rood by the Bay Erldgo tunnol) 
encircled by tha highway approach to Treasure Island (coe below ), stand the 
barracks* These overlook the lightship and lighthouse tenders anchored behind 
bro&kwaters of the former Havel Training Station, whore the old roceiving-ahip 
Boston, eat in concrete, toms as a transfer station for Navy personnel* Above 
whitewashed cliffs on the south shore, Torba Buena Light guide# Teasels In and 
out of the harbors of San Franoiaoo end Oakland# 

Yerba Buona Inland was discovered by Lieutenant de Ayala in 1775* Early 
navigators know it as food Island, although it was called Iain del Carryn on 
old Spanish charts* An Englishman, Frederick Beeohey, first called it Verba 
Buena — a nano ignored looally until 1331 in favor of "Goat Island** (An 
early ro aidant had pastured goats there*) Designated a nilitary rocorvaticn 
in 1347, the ioland was not occupied by American troops until 1330} then, 
following settlement of lend c Inina, an infantry detail — later supplerwntod 
by a detail of Any engineer* — cnoaspod there# By I860 the post included 
borr&oks for officers and rasa, a powder saagasine, and auxiliary units* Bet- 
ween 1335 end 1204 eoaa 6,000 treos ware planted on the island* and, during 
Prooid<mt Noodrow Silcon's administration, 140 acres wore declared a gene 
presorro* Cadets end personnel of the United States Naval Training Station 
occupied Hast of tho reservation fron tha Spanish-Aaorioan Nor until tho tine 
of the school's removal to San Diego in 1023* 

On August 21, 1333, tho construction of Treasure Island, site of tho 
Golden Gate International Exposition, was begun on shoals adjacent to Yerba 
Buena’s precipitous northern shore by tho Amy's Engineers Corps undor aon- 
. mad of Lieutenant Colonel Janos A* Dorst* The construction involved tho 

The Presidio of Son Francisco 


dredging of 21*000,000 cubio yard* of sand (from areas of the Boy where removal 
vould old navigation) and the ratontion of this aoll on rook filling behind * 
•oft wall 13 feet above noen low water level* Thia saanmde island* covering 
an area of <00 acres, was oonploted within 13 months with *fPA labor and tha 
use of $3,800,000 of uPA funds. Treasure Island la connected by a causeway to 
Terbft Buena Island and the Bay Bridge* lVoasure Cover* a sheltered inlet formed 
between the two islands* is tho Bay area to minus for Fan-Aoorioan Clippers* 
late in 1040 the United States Kavy leased Treasure Island from the 
City of Sen Francisco for an airbase "for the duration of the national emer- 
gency ** with tha understanding that it be returned to the city with improve- 
ment* for subsequent development as a municipal airport* 


FORT UASCS is not only the supply base for the ninth Corps Area, but 
it also serves the Amy's garrisons in tha Panama Canal Bone* Alaska* the 
fkK&lisn Islands* the Philippines* end China* The reservation* occupying 
63.6 acres on historic Black Point* overlooks the Golden Gate* the Bay* and 
the l'arina and Forth Beach residential districts of San Francisco. Below the 
gray-atuoooed* rod-roofed off 1 oars' quarters and the creca-colored barracks of 
enlisted non aro tho poat'o warehouses* shops, and transport docks — standing 
cm on area which includes the site of the old Spanish Batoria San Joso (Battery 
fit* Jcoophj* 

Block Point, called Point Uedanoa by the Spaniards, was first occupied 
by troops from tho Proaidio in 1797, whon Governor Diego de Borica ordered its 
fortification to prevent tho anchorage of-foroign vessels off tho shoreline oT 
"in Terba Buena," which at that tin® ourved inland Just east of tho point to 

- 89 ' - 


The Presidio of Gon Francisco 

form ft soall cot# | it was bare that Vancouver's Dlacovory was bolicred to 
brrs boon eaohored in 1792 j however boss# scholars hara placed th« "anohorago" 

Off Fort Point. By September of tho year of its establishment, Bateria San Jos« 
was ft subpoat of tho Presidio, a rood with fire bronze cannons cart in enlln.* 
Soon negleot*d by its garrison, the fcattory wan practically abandoned by 1003, 
whan Governor Arrillega reported that "there vras not even a hut for tho gunaors 
and the guns were rendered useless from exposure** Lon* before the advent of 
American ooouapation tho Bateria Baa Jose hod vanisbodf and only a name — ?oin"t 
Ban Jose ~ identified its loo&tion when President Millard Fillmore in 1850 
doolared tho area a Uni tod States military reservation* Boon after, the proton-.'* 
tory acquired tho popular nano of Black Point, because of a dark fringe of 
laurel growing from the water's edge back into tho scad dunes. Part of tho 
‘reservation's original 100 acres was granted to San Francisco to prorido roaa 
for the expanding city of Qold Rush days. 

Hot until two years after the outbreak of the Civil Bar was the Biaok 
Point reservation ocoupied by A nay troopsj this was cm order froa Brevet 
Brigadier General Richard Barnes Mason, Colonel, First Rogisiant of L'ra-oona, 

U.S, Army, and military governor of California froa 1847 to 1349, for wham tin 
present post was immod in 1832. Among tho homos razed to provide space for 

gun cnplacasonts and barraoks was the "cottage” balonging to the fanily of 
John c* Proi °nt w * :1000 claim to the building and its adjoining 12 acres van 
based on "squatters' rights” which the Ocrvornment refused to rooogniso. Tho 
ftdjaoent one-room homo of Major Leonidas K. Kesko 11 was converted into officer a 
quarters ( non belcre )* It was bore, 1 in 18G9, that Uni tod States Senator Bcvld C 
Brodorlok died of a wound received in a duel near Lcdco Vorood with California* a 
Supremo Court Justloo, David Terry* Additional barracks wore constructed for 

- ©0 


Tbs Presidio of flan frenaisco 

ths ISO troops stationed on the roeenration during the Civil War* In 1372 old 
building* ware reconditioned and a guardhouse# hospital# and supply depot wore 
built# For the next deoads the poet** anaeaent oonaiated of six 10-lnoh# three 
16-inch# and six 20-pound guna# To supply the territory acquired by the Katian 
in the Spanish-Aoorisan Bar# a largo base on the Pacific Coast was required# and 
the Son Francisco Intermediate Depot established at Fort Eason soon after 1338 
date mined the future function of the post# 

On the coming of April 13# 1503# a counted messenger arrived at Fort 
Eases* with orders froa Brigadier General Funston which resulted in the dispatch 
of taro eoapaniss of engineers to old in saving the city froa the ravages of 
the fire which had followed the earthquake# By evening of that hectic day, 
the reservation was host to a crowd of refugees# for whan the post provided 
coffee and all its available tents until acre adequate o acps and facilities for 
relief could bo established# 

In 1018 Fort Eason relinquished a strip four bloc he long on the reserv- 
ation’ o western edge for use by the Pnneasa-Paoifio Expositioai the scfposltica’a 
ferry clips and rail terminal were adjacent to the reservation’s transport docks 
Designated tho San Franoi aoo General Depot in 1028 and the San Frnnoieoo 
Port of Eabarkatioa in 1032# Port Eason has witnessed nearly a century of mili- 
tary activities! the biographioa of the ooreaanding generals of tho old post 
would be in thonsolvoa almost a history of the Arny, 

A rambling two-story white building trimed with groan, the COJGiABDIU® 
OEilSRAL’S QUA3TKBS ( private ) # lkiaArthur Av®## north of the min entrance# ctandn 
one landacapod knoll overlooking flan Franoisoo's Aquatic Park# This residence 
Of tho highest-ranking officer of the flinth Corps Area is c. dovolop-ent of the 


the Frooidio of San Francisco “ 

Ooa-roaai dwelling erected by Major L« t, Haabell in 1352 which wa# ooonandcered 
by the Army wh<m headquarter* of the Deportment of tho Pooifio ware first ra« 
swved from Banioia to San Franoiaoo, Tho Haskell cottage m «o looted be cause 
a suitable reaidonoe for the oocmndlng general was not available on the 
Presidio reservation. First occupied by laajor Cenoral Irvin McDowell in 1836, 
tho building has been the quarter* of a long suooessicn of high-ranking officers, 
each of vhcca has left seas carle of lisprovwaant or enlargement, The present 
structure — its cany rooms of different arohiteotural styles — - has An interior 
. finished with light and dark bardvood in herringbone dosignj tho window* of its 
•paoious conservatory overlook Alcatras and the Bay beyond. Over the portiocea 
separating the downstairs rooms are intricately carved wooden frescoes ) one of 
these, representing a saber under a shield studded with four stare, is believed 
to have been .added during the residence of Lieutenant General Philip Sheridan, 

In treat end rear of the ocsnaandlng general's quarters are two bronco 
cannons, both from the old Castillo do San Joaquin, Tho one roar the drive- 
way on the front loan bears the namo Ban Domingo * tho date of oasting, 1823* 

. and the coat of arms of Don Dio go Fernandes de Cordoba, harquie of Quacalcasar, 
seventeenth Viceroy of Peru, Inscribed on the oannon in the rear yard is tho 
na.T 0 Sen Uarttnf the easting dato, 1634 j and the arms of Don Hale horde Uav&rra 
y Rooafal, Dulca of Plata, Prince of Ka&a, twenty-sixth Vlooroy of Peru, Both 
pieces, plaood here for preservation by General Mo Dew 11 same tine between 
1876 and 1382, hear near the breeoh the Spanish royal coat of arms, 

The SITS OF TITS JOHN C. FRKUOHT HOUSE is indicated by a redwood nerkar 
in the roar of Quarters 5 and 4 near the loop at the north end of Sheridan 
Ro&d, This little whito oottage wan called "Pcrtor'e Lodge* by Thora# Starr 
King, a frequent guest of Mrs* Frcnont and her throe children* Another guotrb 

• 92 - 

the Presidio of San >Vanoi eoo 

ni young Bret Ilarte, then unknwn* Jooupaticn of the property by t ha Aroy was 

the oooaslon for prolonged litigation settled is furor of the Government in 1840* 

la a mail terraced perk near the loop et the north end of Sheridan Hoed 

is the SITS 0? HE 2ATERXA 8AS J03E, Spanish fortifioaticn of 1797 ( geo therm ). 

Built In •U 8 formation around * central oourt ere 8 two-story, groy- 

stuoeoed buildings with red tile roofs* the OFFICERS* QUARTERS, south of i'ae» 

Arthur Are*, adjacent to ft snail parade ground, A square granite ejorngaent boforo 

the buildings at the base of the flagpole boors ft bronze plaque ocaaacnorating 

the establishnont of Fort Season (Kovouber 8, 1350) end its being cased in honor 


Of Colonol Richard Barnes Peoon, 

A three- story areaa-colored brick building with an adjoining throe-story 
frosts annex on the north side of VacArthur Avenue houses the DEPOT, through 
which supplies pass annually to Hinth Corps Area poets and possessions in the 
Paoifio, Established in 1847, this depot successively occupied tents on Can 
Francisoo *nd Banioin boaohea, the Pronob brig Julie off Benloia, and a ware- 
house on the Benicia shore* la 1352 it was returned to San Francisco to Captain 
Poison's iron building at California and Leldesdorf 8troots* Its next horse 
was the Parrott Block, a granite building then at California and Montgomery 
Streets, From 1331 until tho 1306 fire its address was 58 Eontgoasry Street* 
from 1906 until 1915, the Fontana Building at Van Hess Avsnuo and Horth Point* 
Offering temporary quartors to transient troops and of floors, the 
EU3ARKA7I0H CASUAL C3JICR ARD HOSTESS H0U3S is a two-atory or*«ua-oolared frame 
building with a roof of greon asbestos shingles j a vor&nda runs around the 
inner faoe of ono of the structures* Ore of the buildings is built around a 
children's playground which contains a sandbox, swings, a slide, a narry-go- 

- OS - 

tna Ap.ur at the coixcs oath 

The Presidio of San Lraaoisoo 


rami, and a o orient ihufflabotrd for the use of adult*. 

During normal tine* aeon 26,000 military passenger* eaberk annually frtra 
tho ler.g concrete ESAHSPCRT DOCKS ( military pa** available) at the northwest 
corner of the reservation, aoroc* a cove fro* Carina Park, Tho Arty tu ?* 

Slocva El Ar»«fcdor, El Aquaria, and suoh large transport* a* tho Republic, tf.5. 
Croat, end Leonard rood tie up at these wharves, Sbm a transport arrive* from 
tho Philippine* tho tmtorfront of Fort bason enure* with activity resembling 
that of the Ernbaroadero (of which it ia the military extension), The necessity 
for those modern docks was realised during the Spanish-Anarioan '>ar . At that 
tlao a transport service was quickly improvised* old stoamer* euoh as the 
Indiana . Ohio, and SorAtor were rebuilt and sailed from docks leased for the 
purpose at tho foot of Pols cm Street* 

For track. freight car of supplies that passes through tho 1,557-foofc 
RAILROAD TOJI5SL. passing under Fort Jason west of Aoqu&tio Park to emerge 
in a yard at Beaoh end Laguna Streets, the State Board of Harbor Corrals 3 ionuro 
is paid 610. This bore rme oonstruoted in 1314 by tho State Board to provide 
aooess to the Amy docks for tho State Belt Line Railroad, which moves freight 
up end down tho San Frond soo waterfront and to and from the rrosidio of Sen 


tJhsro tho eastern chore of Angol Island eweeps Inward to torn a snail 
oove, FORT 1&JD0.7ELL faces the Bay from a corner of its insular reservation, 

. Its C40 acroa rise sharply in woodod elopeo to tho eunait of liount Ida (7G2 
foot altitude), overlooking the narrow ohcnnol of Eaoooon Strait, which 
to par a. to 8 the island from the l!arin County shore* The Sen Cnrlos dropped 

• 04 • 

m s wear at tto oot ats gate 

The Preaidio ef Saa I'mneisoo 


aaoher in th • strait In 1775 (cm DKrrro^a c? tvs cat p.rr.ion) # 

Prior to it* de si -nation as a nilltary reservation by Executive orders 
in 1350 end 1350, Angel Island (named lain de Xuestra Sonora da lac Angeles 
by Lieutenant Ayala) was for decades under Spanish and TSexican role an occasional 
roaderrous for snugglcra# To prevent these and various foreignora frees main- 
taining a ctr on-hold on its shores, the Kexieea gorenrasni in 1338 -ranted the 
entire island to Don Antonio Uaria Oslo, The ran oho ro raised cattle end horses 
on the steep slopes of his olain, cultivated its soil, and built a dost to 
eoossrve the water froa springs first dia covered by the erer of th# fan Carla s. 
Ousted when the United States oade the island a military reservation, Oslo fled 
to Uexieo froa there, in 1855, he unsuccessfully attsnstod to reestablish his 

.The island first was occupied by the Aray in 1863, when Company 5, 3rd 
Artillery, Lieutenant John L# Tiers on cosnoading, began construction of a post 
to be known os C&np Koynolda* By 1865 three batteries oocmsnded Raoooon Strait 
and the Golden Gate# Two years later the post was toknn ovor by the infantry# 
During the seventies it served as a prison ©as? for Indians tahaen in the 
Arison* campaign. 

In 1833 a Detention end Quarantine Statics* established here in 1392 
was used for troops returning frees the Philippines# One year later, on April 
4, 1300, this post was designated Fort FoDcraell, in honor of iSajor General 
Irvin FoDcsroll, (Faring served with distinction in the Uexioan i-'ar, General 

yoOowoll led the Fedoral troops in the firEt battl ® of BuU Run * w * 8 in 
cofiEiwid of tho Anay of the Rappahannock in the defense of tfashington, and 

of tho Department of California during the lattor part of the Civil >bt») In 
1901 tho Detention Station was oonrerted into a Discharge Depot, with temporary 

- 95 

’ 300 

The Jrreeidio of San Frmcieoo 

administration buildings and quarters. Permanent buildings were erected in 


IT 1 thin reoent year* the reservation has baan deolared a geae praearra 
and stocked with deer, quail, and pheasants, hep roved by STA labor, a ser- 
pentine uHitary road — • rising from an BO- to a 500-foot height along the 
cliffs abora the sea — links Fort 15cDo«rall with a lighthouse and a fog-sig- 
nal station on the island's western side end with the units on the reeerva- 
tion under jurisdiction of the United States Issaigration and liaturalitutlon 
Service and the Public health Service. 

One of the Say region's busiest posts in peacetime. Fort McDowell con- 
tinues to perfora its original function of reoeivi eg, training, and discharg- 
ing oversees troopsj officially it is tha "Overseas Discharge and Replacement 
Depot." Stationed here is a permanent personnel of 19 officers, Z warrant 
officer, and a g&rrlsion of 263 enlisted non, Recruits froa all parte of the 
Ration receive training and equipment at Fort EoDowell before serving oversea*} 
and after their period of foreign service they return through the fort. Formally 
an average of 30,000 men pass yearly through this post, where to date a total cf 
103,000 troops have been discharged. 


BESICIA AR3EHAL, occupying about a square Rile of land at Benicia, on 
Carquines Strait, is an Ordnance Dep&rtnant military Service installation for 
manufacture, repair and storage of Ordnance material and supplies. Its sito 
was selected in 1049 by a joint Army and liavy Board (the sane board selected 
Uaro Island, at Vallejo, California, for a feral base). Construction of the 
Installation was started by two ccnpanles of the Second Infantry on April 
50, 1849. 




The Presidio of San Pranoisoo oUX 


BeAdquarters of the Paoifio Divieion of the Amy were moved from Son 
Franolsoo to Bonlolft In July* 1849* end remitted there until 1857 (although 
me early as 1852 Headquarters Deteohsent end bo esb Quartermaster Troop* re- 
turned to San Prune isco), Crdnaaoe activities at the arsenal began in August, 
1851, with the arrival of Brovet Captain Charles P. Stone, who had left Fort 
iionroe, Virginia, in January, under orders from Secrotary of ”'ur Jefferacen 
Davis, The original handwritten orders to Captain Stone for the establishment 
of the arsenal are still in tho Beniola Arsenal files. 

Several early buildings, of native sandstone quarried on arsenal prop- 
erty, are still in use, Eotable are a powder raogasins (1887), with a roof 
Supported by four-way arches set on decorated atone pillars, and the old rain 
building (1859), The dock in the tower of this building is a cessorial to 
Colonel Julian UcAllietor, twice eoaraander of the arsenal (18G0-64 and 1867-86), 
A reoord of his troubles in drilling an artiaian well — - that failsd to produce 
ft satis faotory vater supply after being put down ft total of 1,407 feet, requir- 
ing 11 years' work — are preserved in his annual reports to the Chief of Crd- 
nanoe. The Coreaanding Offioer's Quarters, built in I860, have bsen occupied 
continuously, housing 19 of Benioia Arsenal's 21 Coacsanding Officers, 

Benicia Arsenal was tho port of debarkation for tba oasials bought by 
Jefferson Davia in Asia and shipped to tho Pacific Coast to be used by the 
Arzay in toning the "Great American Desert," Aooording to evidence in tho 
arsenal filos, tho experiment failed because the camels likod neither the 
astern ololrate nor the ways of tho American soldier. 

During and lranodiately aftor the Civil TCar oonsiderablo quantities of 
blaok powdor were manufactured at Bonicia Arsenal, It also served as a prov- 
ing ground for powder-testing until about 1893, 

ths Ararr at the coLErsi gats 302 

Tbs Presidio of San fronoisoo 

Ths Spaniah-Aaerioan TTar and ths subsequent occupation of tbs Philipp Ins 
Islands increased ths arsenal's activities as a depot and a repair bass for 
Ordnance material. Several old bronze cannons taken as prises of war at 
Manila are still stored here, awaiting distribution as ornaments for public 
buildings on War Department orders, 

Benicia Arsenal was ths boyhood hose of author Stephen Vinoont Benet, 
whose fathor was Commanding Offioer from 1905 through 1911, 

During the fierld ^ar ths araenal expanded to serrs the vast training 
canps of the Paoifio slope, the Expeditionary Force in Siberia, and Hawaiian 
and Philippine garrlecna. 

The contraction of the Amy after the «orld <<er increased storage denamdo 
and reduced aonufaeturing operations at the arsenal. Its small-arras shop sur- 
vived 'the contraction of manufacturing and repair operations, largely by doing 
repair on snail arms for the Havy Department, (In roc on t years this was the 
only shop in full operation,) 


On the shores of San Pablo Bay, 23 miles from the Paoifio Ocean, pro- 
tooted on th© west by the Bolin&s Ridge (which runs Ilka vertebrae down the 
liar in Poninoula) is KAkULTGH FIELD, looking more like a modem residential 
suburb of Spanish-Califomia hones than the Amy’s Pursuit Base for northern 

Early in 1929 a board of Array officers headed by Lieutenant Colonel 
Gerald C, Brant surveyed available air-base sites on the Paoifio Const, Seoauao 
of ito strntogio position xidvay between the Mexican and Canadian borders, the 
San Franoiaoo Day region was favored. This site'e inland position, sheltered 

ras mr at ms cjoldes oats 303 

The Presidio of £an Fronoisoo 

by the sandstone hi 11a frea long-rangs ana my guns *— and the availability of 
land for expansion — detorainod the present looatioo of the base on lAirin 
Doe doe's, soven nllea north of Sen Rafael, 

On July 3, 1950, Presidont Herbert Hoover signed the Teho Bill, whloh 
Oppropriatod $1,412,117 for construction of the air base, JSorin County, on 
Haroh 17, 1032, handed the doed to almost 928 acres of oak-crowned hills and 
reclaimed marshlands to Colonel J« R, Hannsy, Quartermaster, Uinth Corps Area, 
The $5,000,000 spent for facilities and improvement# sinoo 1952 ran too 
Hamilton Field one of the country's bast equipped and most attractive air 
bsises* The reservation, first kneran as 2arin Leadowo Air Field, was later 
officially designated Hamilton Field, la honor of U&rin County's World War 
hero. First Lieutenant Lloyd Andrews Hnmilton of the Seventeenth Aero Squadron. 
Lieutenant Hamilton was awarded the Distinguished Sorvioe Cross for extra or di- 
nary heroism in action at Vars8onaore, Belgiisa, whore he led a low boobing 
attack on a German airdrome 30 miles behind the linos, August 13, 1918, 13 
days before his death in action near La gueoourt, Franca* 

On Juno 25, 1933, Cup tain Don Hutchins, A.C., reported as the first 
oocoanding officer of the new post* The first Air Corps Squadron to bo sta- 
tioned at Hamilton Fiold arrived in December, 1953* It was the 70th Sorvioe 
Squadron, ooinmndod by Captain John U, Davies* 7ha 7th Bombardment Group, 
formrly at Varoh Field, California, was transferred to a permanent etatioa at 
the now fiold on Dooonber 4, 1934* At present stationed there aro the 46th 
Air Baao Group (P*oinf)j 20th Pursuit Croup (F)| 36th Pursuit Group (Int)j 
82d Cbservntion Squadron! and uoathor. Signal, Ordnance, Quarteraastor, Hedlcal, 
and Finnnoo organisations, totalling over 4,000 officers and men* An average 
of 260 dear days each year wakes the mile-square, table-flat landing fiold 

The Presidio of Son Franoisoo 


Idoal for lingo A ray bombers and fast pursuit planes* Field exorolees and 
lens-distanoe sacs flights ore the rule, rather than the exooption, at 
Usailtoa Field, Cn» snas flight, of two month*# duration, ccnrorcd preotieally 
the whole of the Ehited States, 

Frota the Boy ehore, where a oanal and wharf provide harbor faoilitica, 
tho reservation rises gently to a velvet-green plateau on which the loss 
Spanish-atyle otruoturoa of the post glean white against seoitropical plants 
end shrubs i Streets end boulevards wind about the hills. The administration 
buildings, hangers, hospital, theater, post offioe, shops and quarters, end 
radio, elootrio, and fire-fighting units fora a ocmpaot self-sustaining military t 

Froa the portals of the fiold a wido pa la- lined avenue leads to °.tso 
Boadquertors housed in a etruoturo designed to resemble a California mission, 

*Xn the scuao building is a collection of objects of historic interest — relics 
of a civilization antedating that of tho Spanish* stone implements, flint 
weapons — even the series — of the Indians upon the site of whoso long-for- 
gotten village this modern post was built. The OFFICERS* CLU3, a r&rubling 
hacienda on the crest of the promontory, looks eastward over tho chamoloon 
waters of Ban Pablo Bay to distant Uount Diablo, 


In Santa Clara Valley, whloh otretoho* flat as a billiard table betsnen 
liount Pandlton and tho Coast P-snge, lies iioffett Field, hone of the '.Teat Coast 
Air Corps Training Contor and tho West Coast Air Corps Basio Flying School, 
Originally a ITaval Air Station, this 1,000-aore reservation — ooleotod by the 
West Coast T'aval Airship Base Board after the consideration of 87 possible sitos 



Artsy Posts In the B ay Are* 305 

fro* Alaska to S*n Diego — la also the location of a now 110,000,000 aero- 
nautical resoaroh laboratory of the Rational Advisory Counoll on Aeronautlos, 
Strategically located at the southern extremity of San Fnmoisoo Bay, 
■haltered fron adverse air currents by low-lying hills, and free of eleotrloal 
and wind store*, lioffott Field has an average of 211 dear days during the 
year. It was oonaldorod by Lieutenant Cosnandor C. E, Rosendahl, U. S, IT,, 
the boat natural dirigible base in the United States, The deed to tho prop- 
erty, valuod at *470,055, was handed Government authorities on August 3, 1331| 
construction was started on October of tho ease year, and the station was coa- 
jaissloncd on April 12, 1335, By 1334, >4,300,000 had boon spent on 40 struc- 
tures, which Included a 2,000,000-oubio-foot heliun storage tank, a purifica- 
tion tank, a balloon hangar, and barracks. To these recently have been added 
25 barracks, 3 boss halls, 3 recreation halls, and an addition to the post 
‘hospital, Three class building# have 'boon -erected, end work has boon started 
on a building for flight surgeon’s examinations, 

Ehon tho airship Akron dooked at Sunnyvalo for the first tine, on i&y 13, 

1332, eon® of the oldest valley residents recalled the world’s first glider 
flight, nade by Professor Montgomery of Santa Clara University 63 years earlier, 
while others compared it to America’s first dirigible, an 85-foot ship with a 12- 
horeepowor motor, whioh soared valley cattle "back in 1003," 

The 785-foot ;accn , larger than Germany’ s Graf Topr.elln, tied up at the 
Sunnyvale mooring cast October 15, 1033, Tho ship had boon ohrlstened on 
i'aroh 11, 1333, by the wife of Roar Admiral hlllim A. hoffett, U. S. I?,, Chiof 
of the bureau of Aeronautics, Twenty-four days later tho Ahrcn , with Admiral 
Uoffett aboard, battered by an Atlantlo storm, was foroad down and broken up 
by tho seas off the Lew Jersey coast, Uhon tho lac on , booause of structural 



Army Post* in tho Bay Area ^ 

failure, wont down off tho Paolfio Coast in a storn, tha vim of rigid air- 
ship* for long -ran 5* saemting oporation* in ooaet defense was abandoned. 

tn exoiiange for three aroy field*. Sunnyvale Karel Air Station was 
transferred to the Cnited Statue Arr^y by Preeident Franklin D. Roosevelt on 
October 23, 1333. Tho reservation was then roraaed for Admiral Moffett, who 
had loot hi* life in the crash of the Akron . Kow etatloned at Moffett Field 
are Amy Air Corps units vhioh inoluCe the 3th Air Base Group, 7Sth and 73th 
Sohool Squadron*, tho Headquarters Squadron of the ^eat Coast Air Corps 
Training Center, and detachments of the Medical, Finance Popertnenta , Quarter- 
master Corps, and the 3th Signal Cervioe Company, plua the eoheol faculty. 

Flashing silrer in the sunlight, the arched bulk of the a1£3K.TF VJ3Crr S , 

2 block* Ion- and as tall as an 13-story skyaoreper, dwarf* the red-brown bar- 
rsok* and stuccoed administration building*. Scattered trees line the four 
prinoljral streets t)»at run from the siuia gate * ou there t toward the giant 
hangar (sow used for the storage of /ray training ships) | 1,300 feet from 
each end of tho structure aro two 30-ncro mov-ring oirolos. Powerful night 
floodlights east of the hangar illuminate the K-sVapod 1,300-foot airplane 
ruircaysj in their radiance a newspaper can be read at a distance of 3,500 foot. 

The iiatlon&l Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, in September, 1533, 
eelaoted "offett Field from a list of W sites for the hotse of the $10, 000,000 
Alh-’S AEHOKAilTICAL PPSfARCH ! A BORA TOFT ( closed to tho public ). Tho oovoral 
units of this huge plant will contain, besides other facilities for flight ro- 
search, five high-speed wind tunnel* for testing planes under flight cv nditiono 
imposod by nodom warfare. Ono of those tunnels will produoe on air epoed of 
nc-re t han ICO (tiles an hour, will coot over Si, 000,000 and will provide the 
only large-scale oqulpaoat in the world for ultra-high speod tostlng. Two 

103 - 


Amy Posts la ths Bay Area 30 7 

additional tunnels, oas to be ths largest la ths world, will bo eonstruoted 
la ths near future, la ths laboratory a corps of highly trained engineers, 
specialists In aerodynamics, will conduct rosearoh on all flight problems 
and investigate new designs, particularly those included In the Arcy A Nary 
requirements under the Rational Defense iYogran. 

On Ootober 1, 1S40, Moffett Field bcoaae the Rest Coast Air Corps Baoio 
Training Center for the training of pilots for the Array Air Corps, Operating 
like Randolph Fiold, Texas ("The TTest Point of the Air"), and Uaxsrell Field, 
Alabama, It will help to train annually some 7,000 pilots and 3,600 bombardiers 
and navigators for tho Air Corpo. The oourse for those cadets will be ooaoleted 
within 35 weeks* 10 weeks will be spent in ele-santary training on biplanes with 
800-horsopower bo tors at designated civilian flying schools) another 10 weeks 
will include inctruotioa on 450-horsepover nonoplanes at one of the baoio 
schools, such as that at Moffett Field) 10 more weeks will go to npeoialited 
flying) and the final 5 weeks oh praotioe-bcabing and battle maneuvers. Selection 
of o&dsts is cade from unmarried applicants between tho ages of 20 and 26 in- 
olusivo. The applicant nruct present evidence that he had ooaploted satis f&otorilj 
at least one-half of tho nooessary credits loading to a degree, or must pass a 
written examination in llou thereof, . Also, he mast present ©vldenoo of ohuraotor 
and bo physically Bound, Cadets aro paid ,75 a nonth and roooive room on l board, 
clothing and nodioal oaro during their training period. On graduation, they aro 
ooaraiosicnod sooond lieutenants in tho Air Corps Reserve and roooive three yearn 
aotlvo duty with cor, bat or sanitations. 

- 103 

The Army at the Coidea Cat* 



Uilltary Chronology 


military cimcsoLoor or the bay sfoich 

1679 Juno 17 

1760 Her 1-8 

1772 Unr 20 

1775 Aug 6 

1776 Bar 7 

Sep 17 

Franals Dmat anchors Golden Hinde In Drake’* Bay and 
elalns California fer England* 

Don Qaapar da Portola’s Chief Coout, Sergeant Jos# Ortega, 
dicoovore Can Franoisoo Bay* 

Captain Pedro Fagos leaves Monterey to explore shores of 
San Franoisoo Bay* 

Pan Carlos, first ship to enter Bay* la piloted through 
Golden Gate by Joee Caniearoa under oonmnd of lieutenant 
Juan Uanuel do Ayala* 

Colonel Juan Bautista de Ansa* with lieutenant Joes Joaquin 
Uoraga, Father Pedro Font, and eurrey party of 15 reach elto 
of San Franoisoo Freaidio and osajp at 'fountain Lake, 

Presidio of San Franoisoo is founded by Colonel Ansat Lieu- 
tenant Uoraga noaed first co^nndanto * 

Oot 8 


1702 Row 18 

1794 Poo 8 

Mission San Franoisoo de Asia ('-'lea Ion Dolores) is dedicated* 
Original Presidio, oonsiotlng of adobe building# enolcsod 
on three sides by redwood palisades is completed. 

First fereigi visitor. Captain George Vancouver, oesunanding 
n.’J.S. Dinoovery , enters San Franoisoo Bay 
El Castillo do San Joaquin dodioated by Governor Don Jose 
Joaquin de Arrillaga on eite of Fort «infiold Soott, v 

Ullitiry Chronology 


1T9T J«* 80 

1808 July 17 

1828 Uar 28 

1828 Apr £4 

1854 Deo 7 

1658 Feb 19 


1846 June 14 

July 7 

1848 July 9 

1647 Jan 2 

1847 Jan 50 

Covsrnor Diego D* Borina authorises construction of 
Sateria Een Joes on site of Fort Hasan, 

Violent earthquake shocks demolish most Presidio 

California formally doolared prenrinoe of Republio of 

Cnth of alio glance to nearly established Republio of 
Uexioo is administered at Presidio* 

First ayunta-ai-wto is elooted at Presidioj Don Franoiso© 
do Haro chosen first aioalde* 

Angel Island granted to Antonio ’.'aria Oslo by Hexioan 

Presidio abandoned by Hexioan forces* 

3ear flag robots at Concern* lod by Fsekial Merritt, proclaim 
California an independent republio* 

Commodore John D, Cloat raises American flag at Monterey 
and proclaims California annexed to United States* 

Captain John D, Montgomery raises flag over Yerba Buena* 
"Battle of the Mustard Stalks" fought at Santa Clarnj 
Captain ~ard Parston defeats ’-lexicon foroe, ocnoluding 
Yankee oonqu* et of northern California* 

Yerba Buena renamed San Franoisco by lieutenant Uashiaqton 
Bartlett, U.S.'f., first American alcalde. 

ths Arjrr At nr.'. oolxh cate 

Uilltary Chronology 


1847 Bar Colonel Jonathan Drake Stevenson's reglnrent of 7th 

Sew Tork Volunteer* arrives in San Franoleoo* Presidio 
formally ooaupied by American troope under ocranand of 
Major Jccrtsa A* Hardis. 

1843 Teh 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hijalgo cedes California to United 

1849 “Pirot California Guard", pioneer National Guard organisa- 

tion, formed In Can Franoiooo* 

Feb £6 Headquarters of Division of the Paoifio removed from 
Monterey to San Franoiooo Customs House* 


Apr Headquarters for division of tho Faoifio removed to Benicia 

by Cenoral f’erslfer F« Smith* 

Apr 30 Two companies of Seomd Infantry begin o-nstruotion of 
military poet (Senloia Arsenal) at Benicia. 

1350 Hov 6 Yerba Bums and Angel Isl&ndp, roeerved-by axooutive order 
for military purpocoo. 

1850 Hov 

6 President ’iillard Fillmore deol&res Point San Jose a 

military reservation* 

1852 July 23 First Internment in U.S. national Cemetery at Presidio. 

1853 Aloatras Island is firet ocouni-d by Amorloon troops. 

1855 Destruction of old Castillo da San Jc aouin begun. 

Apr 17 United States Harino Uotspital established at Presidio. 
1857 Apr 29 Headquarters for Division of tho Paolfia permanently » 

eatabllshod at Presidio. 

10CO Military pout established on Yerba Buena Island. 

- 107 - 


Uilitary Chronology 


1561 Fob 


1868 July 




1681 Aug 


1832 Uay 

1893 Jan 

1896 July 

1887 Apr 

15 Fort Point oonpletod and garrisoned by teo ooopanles of 
3rd Arfclllory, 

7 General Albert Sidney Johnston, ooseaxador of Department 
of California, resigns to Join force* of rebellion, 

24 Lend purchased for Liao Point Reservation (Porte Barry 
and Baker), 

First nilitary band organised at Presidio, 

&agttl Island designated a depot for reoeptlcn and disohargo 
of reoruits xroa Atlantio Coast, 

Angel Island first used as prison ca np for Indian prisoners 
taken in the Arisona Campaign, 

1 baited States Quarantine Station authorised for Angel Island 
Fort 'fas on named in honor of Colonel Richard Samoa Paeon, 

25 Fort Point renamed Fort 8 infield Eoott, 

1 United State a Quarantine Station opens on Angel Island, 

1 Ar?y post at Alo&traz Island designated "saluting station" 
to return ealutos of foreign vesselo of war, 

23 Site of Fort Mlloy awarded to United Staten Amy under 
condemnation proceedings, 

1 Alcatraz Island dasignatnd as United Staton Disoipltnary 

29 'l&mo of Liaa Point ohangod to Fort Baker in honor of 
Soloaol Edward Dickinson Bokor, 

UlHt^ry Chronology 


189? July T 

1898 Jan 23 

Knr 8 

Apr 12 

Apr 10 

Hay 3 



Apr 14 

1004 Deo 27 

1005 July 8 

1900 Apr 18 

Apr 30 

First pexaanent garrieon established at Fort Bakers 
Battery 1* 3rd Artillery# 

Fiftieth. anniversary of discovery of gold celebrated by 
nilitary rorrlov at Presidio# 

Fifth and Sixth Artillery Feglomts organised and assembled 
at Presidio# 

Army trrais f»r« Torba Buena Island to Savy# retaining small 
plot an base port for clne-layere# 
tVxitod States declares war on Spain* 

Caap iktrriman established in FTeoidio# 

Caap Morritt established in Presidio# 

First Philippine expeditionary troops sail from San Francisco# 
Fort MoDowell established on Anr.el Island a» quarantine 
barracks and station for returning Philippine expeditionary 
troops j rttasd In honor of "a jor General Iry'n VoDowell# 
Veteran's Hospital established at Fort Ullcy# 

Fort Barry ostabllshod by di-riding Fort Bokor into two 

Soorotary of Tar allot* to Department of Commeroe and 
Dabor lend on Angel I a land for Immigration Detention 

Earthquake and fire strike fan Franoleco) General Frederick 
Fuoston organises relief and refugee oamps# 

Earthquake damage to Presidio ©atinatod at tl27#750# 

Military Chronology 


190T July 4 

1908 Feb IT 

1910 Fob * 

Mar 18 


1911 Aug SI 

Cot H 

Her 25* 

1912 June 1 


1912 Sop 4 


1918 Feb 20 

Thirtieth Infantry oencentrated at Presidio t> r second 
•xpedltlon to Philippiass* 

Firf t. perrauent farricon established at Fort Barr / % lSlat 
Coaoany, Coast Artillery Corps* 

Thirtieth Infantry reorganised by aot of Congress* 

First companies of Thirtieth Infantry organised at "Modal 
Caap" In Presidio* 

®ork ca first ssodera battery emolnoenentfl begun at Fort 
Borryj completed four years later* 

Fort Miley becomes cub- post of Frosidio* 

Companies of 50th Infantry and one battery of Field 
Artillery reviewed by President Taft at gromd-breaking 
ceremonies of Ftusasw«>raoiflo International Exposition* 
Post Hospital at Presidio renamed i-etteraan General 
Hospital in honor of ka.ior Jonathan Lotte man* 

*ort Scott becomes A ray post independent of Presidio* 
Sixth Coast Artillory moves front Presidio to now quarters 
at Fort ttin field Soott* 

Henry L. S time on, Secretary of ^ar, reviews troops at 

{1,571,000 Benicia fire guts three-atory tain storage 

Cavalry oaoort Froa Presidio provided for Governor Hiram 
Johnson to head marohers to Panajan~Haoifio International 



Unitary Chronology 

1919 Aug 

191T Apr 



191? Apr 




1918 Apr 


1019 Sot 

1920 Juno 


1822 Aug 

2? 7 <lfo and two children of General John J, Pershing perish 
In lYesidio fire, 

8 Seor-nd and fifth Provisienal Infantry Brigade* of 
California National Guard mobilised* 

8 Baited States deol&res ear on Germany, 

? Eeoond and Fifth Infantry ocnoontraticn oampa at Presidio 
plaoed on full war basis. 

14 Presidio is named officers* training camp for eleven 
Western states* 

26 Fort Funs ton named in honor of U* jor-Goneral Frederiok 
Funs ton. 

16 Cemp Fremont established at Palo Alto and named for 
General John C« Fremont* 

Eighth Division, Twelfth Infantry, embark* for Siberia, 
l Thirtieth Infantry contingent embarks for Franco* 

11 Armistice deolarod* 

8 Crissy Field dedicated* named in honor of Ua^or Dona II, 

4 Rational Defense Aot amended, oreating Rational Guard, 

CUTC and ROTO units* 

eyre organised under provisions of Rational Defense Aot* 
Sohool for Bakers and CookB bo gun at Presidio, 

Hinth Corps Area Hoadquartora removed to Presidio, 

£6 Thirtieth Infantry ordered to permanent station at Presidio 

Uilltary Chronology 



Jan IS 
































War Department giro* oonsent for ocnstruetlcn of Bay 

Baaing of Presidio streets oowploted open retirement of 
Brigadier General William P« Burnhaa, 

First "Pawn to Busk* flight aoroos continent, by Lieu- 
tenant Russell A. Haugban, successfully oonplotod at 
Criesy Field, 

Presidio celebrate* 160th birthday, 

Uajor Albert Begenborger and uieutonant boater ‘-'altlaad 
pilot tri -motored Army Foirker from Oakland to Honolulu, 
President Herbert Poorer signs Kahn Bill appropriating 
$1,412,117 for construction of air base at Hamilton Field, 
Sunnyvale Gaval Air Station established by order of Congroso, 
First celebration of Amy Day marks annireraary of America’s 
entry into World War, 

TJaae of Goat Island, adopted in 1093, ohsagod baok to ferba 
Buena Island, 

Presidio Post Chapel dedicated with nilit&ry ritos. 

Fourth A Try organised with headquarters In Oraoha, Kobraska. 
Civilian Conservation Corps or rated with headquarters at 

West Point Preparatory School established at Fort Soott, 
Fourth Amy Headquarters surra d frets Omaha, ‘>e bra ska to 

Military Chronology 


193$ Dee 

Tirst Air Corps Squadron (tOth Sorrioo Squadron) at* tinned 
at Hamilton Field, 








Jan Presidio Officers’ Club restored to its original architecture. 

$1 ,350, 000 group of buildings at Fort Uiley oomploted and 

July 12 United States Disciplinary Barracks abandoned at Alcatras 

Oot 28 Sunnyvale Haval Air Station transferred to Army and renamed 










Vioffott Field, 

30 Crissy Field abandoned as Army airport, 

21 Construction of Treasure Island begun under supers lslcu 
of Army Engineers Corps, 

27 Oolden Gate Bridge dedicated and opened, 

17 Fort Cronkhite, under construction, named for laajor 
General Adalbert Cronkhite, 

17 Local Air Corps personnel parti oipate in program oorr.-ier. orat- 
ing first bright brothers’ flight at Kitty Hawk, How Jersey, 
Deoember 17, 1903, 

1 Work begins on ?2, 263, 000 Presidio rehabilitation program, 

18 Treasure Island opened to publio, 

lioffott Field selcotesl by national AdTieory Committee for 
Aoron&utios as home of 510,000,000 Aeronautical Hosearch 

21 31,550,000 Fur.ston Avenue Approach and Park-iYeeldio 

Tunnel opened to Golden Gate Bridge trafflo , / 



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• 121 

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Presidio of San Pranoiedo. PRESS RELEASE. "Abandorsaent of Crl«*y Field,* 

June 8, 1936 

REPORT OF THd SECRETARY OF TfAR FOR 1868. 40th Cong., Sd S**a.,R.S:x« 
Coo. So. 1 (1369). Cor. Doc. 1373-3. 

REPORT 0? TBS SECRETARY OP TfAR FOR 1872. 42nd Cong., Sd Cobb., U.Ex. 

Coo. So, 1, pt. 2 (1875), Scr. Doo, 1553-9, 

REPORT OF TIE SECRETARY OF TfAR FOR 137S, 44th Cong., lit Seat., H. 

£xi Deo. Ho. 1. pt. 2 (1376). Cor, doo, 1675-73, 

REPORT CF THE SECRETARY OF TfAR FOR 1876. 44th Cong., 2d Sosa., H.Ex. 

Coo. So. 1, pt. 2 (1877). 6*r. doo. 1742-47. 

REPORT OF TIE SECRETARY 0? WAR FOR 1373. 45th Cong., Sd Eeoa., H.Ex. •- 
Coo, So, 1, pt. 2 (1879). Ser. doo. 134S-48. 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF STAR FOR 1898. 65th Cong., 3d Son*., n.Ex. 

Doo. So. 2, (1393). Cor. doo. 3744-62. 

REPORT OF THH CECEETA’T OF WAR FOR 1901. 67th Cong., lit 8e#c„ H. 

Ex. Doo. So. 2 (1901). Ser. doo. 4269-85. 

REPORT OF TIE SECRETARY OF FAR FOR 1929. 71nt Cong., let Soae. (1929). 

IV . V nmiscrlnt Eatorlal, 

Lotlxirr., iolfirra^n 

"Arohiroa of California. Provincial Btato Papers, "• in the Bancroft library, 
vole, 6-7, 16, 13, 21 

Boataor, Capt. "Harbor FofCiiaea of Can Franoicoo," San Franoieco Preildio, 
July 1933* 

• 122 

tub Asat at rnv oolceh cute 



Began, O.R, "Brief History of Aloat ru Ialand," Saa Fracelsoo Presidio, 1958* 
Hunt, Ruth, "Sotos on Fort Mason, froa Research Material ia the Bancroft 
library," San Franolsao Presidio, 1938, 

Koch, Maj. Osoar H* "Fort UoOowoll," 3crr 19, 1939, 

Ifoedcn, Capt. 3.1, "Presidio of San Franolnoo", Son Fmnairco Prosidio, cl93G» 
Partello, Co, Joseph X, "Tho National Ouird in the Can Franoisoo 3ay Areas," 
Ban Franoisoo Presidio, 1940, 

~ Works Progress Administration, "Benioia Arsenal," by Join Adams Hussey, 
Registered LaadaarVs Series, Ko« 1T0# Berkeley, 1930, 

_______ “Castillo da Boa Joaquin," by George Taya, Registered Landaarka Sorias, 


Berkeley, 1936, 

______ "Presidio of Son Franoieoo," by R.C. Erring, Registered landmarks Series, 

So, T9, Berkeley, 193d, 

______ "Yerba Buena," by Georgs Walcott Aaes, Jr, Registered Landmarks 

r** Series, Berkeley, 1938, 


Fain, Seocnd Lt. Jarvis J, Letter to Chief Quart o m a p ter, Department of 
California, July 1C, 1906, Pei Troops Leaving Fort Uaeon for Son Franoisoo 
during fire of 1908, 

Clem, Asst, Q.M, John l. Letter to Military Secretary, Pepartsont of Call- 
fomia, July 2, lDOu, Fo i Expen ee of repairing earthquake damage at posts, 
Oarred, Lt, Col, Joseph, Lottor to Adjutant at Monterey Presidio, Juno 30, 
1900, Roi Troops otationed at San Franoisoo during fire, 

Lawton, Capt. Tfilliaa S, Letter to Thoaas Finley, no date, Ret Rest Point 
Preparatory Sohool at Fort Rlr.fiold Scott, 

Funnton, Haj. Gon. Fredoriok, Telegram to Comanding General Doparbtent of 
Columbia, April - 1903, 

• 123 • 

.tVtf* |J V ., 



McCain, AdJ. Gen. Tale grata to Commanding General, Department of California, 
April U, 1910. Re* Visit of Prince Tasi Tao of China. 

Page, Charles, Exec. Vice Pres. San Francisco Chamber of Commerce. Letter to 
Col. H.T. Bur gin, Aug. 1?, 1938, Re- Fort Winfield Scott. 

Simmons, Capt. J.F. Letter to City Editor of San Francisco CALL BULLETIN, 

Sep 22, 1939. Re* Fort Winfield Scott. 

Stimson, Secretary- of War Henry L. Letter to Charles Moore, Pros. Panama 
Pacific International Exposition Co., Aug. 18 , 19H. Re* Use of Presidio 
Lands by Exposition Company. 

William, Lt. Col. Benjamin H.L. Letter to ... no date. Re* West Point 
Preparatory ^chool. 

V. Interviews 

Col, J.?. Franklin, Adjutant, Fort Mason, Oct. 10, 19iiO. 

H.C. Abernathy, Karine Hospital, Oct 11, 19H0. 

Board of State Harbor Commissioners, Ferry Building, Oct 10, 19U0. 

Lt. Albert D, Gilbert, San Francisco Presidio, Oct 11, 19l*0. 

Lt, Candr F.B. Johnson, San Francisco Presidio, Oct. 11, 19^0. 

Michael T. McKeon, Field Executive Secretary Boy Scouts, July 2, I 9 U 0 . 

United States Coast and C-eodetio Survey, San Francisco, Oct 19, 19 UO 

United States Ir migration Service, San Francisco, Oct 18, 19U0. 

PART vm 



Drawings by Paul J. Hartle 




Back ia IS 19, the arrival of S6 soldiers, “all fine 
looking and in good discipline,” was good news in- 
deed to the new commander of the Presidio of San 
Francisco, Captain Erasmus D. Keyes, 3rd Artil- 
lery. But ’-19 was the year of the Gold Rush. When 
“We began having dress parades, and doing garri- 
son duty strictly according to Army regulations,” 
Keyes found that within a week he had lost two- 
thirds of his men. 

Desertion to the gold fields turned out to be one 
of the major problems facing the military installa- 
tions in San Francisco. For Keyes, it almost wiped 
out liis entire command. 

“One night the whole guard, including the corpo- 
ral, went off,” he wrote in his memoirs. An officer 
was sent in pursuit, overtaking the guard 15 miles 
away, “shot a couple, but brought back only one 
wounded soldier, as all his escort joined the desert- 



William T. Sherman, a young lieutenant at the 
time, also was stationed in California. His Memoirs 
note that pursuits of deserters had to be composed 
wholly of officers because the enlisted men were 
more apt to join the deserters. 

The reason for desertions was that a man could 
earn more in a day at the mines than in a month as 
a soldier. Prices were so high that when the Head- 
quarters for the Department of the Pacific were set 
up in San Francisco, an old adobe custom house 
was used as an office. The commanding general 
and his wife lived aboard the USS Ohio as guests 
of the commodore. 

ware Houses 

CAUP. - 1792. 

Sherman was adjutant general to the commander. 
General Persifor T. Smith. Smith succeeded Colo- 
nel Richard B. Mason who had asked to he relieved 
because the war with Mexico was over and, "The 
soldiers nearly all deserted.” Even Iris cook had left 
and the colonel had to prepare his own meals. 

The Smiths found themselves in the same situa- 
tion. All hut one of their servants disappeared and, 
to quote Sherman, “The general, commanding all 
the mighty forces on the Pacific coast, had to 
scratch to get one square meal a day for In's family. 

. . . Breakfast would be announced any time be- 
tween ten and twelve, and dinner according to cir- 
cumstances.” Finally the married officers gave up 
and sent their families back to the East. 

To make ends meet, and, as Keyes noted, “The 
garrison being too much reduced for proper mili- 
tary service, the officers were allowed by General 
Smith to do something to increase their pay.” Keyes 
took up surveying and real estate and within a year 
was receiving $1,000 a month in rentals. In 1856, 
Congress authorized additional pay for officers and 
men stationed in California. 

Although Lieutenant H. W. Halleck, an associ- 
ate, also invested in city property, Sherman rejected 
a suggestion that he buy, too. “I felt actually in- 
sulted that he should think me such a fool as to pay 
money for property in such a horrid place,” Sher- 
man noted in his Memoirs. 

WHEN HE VISITED San Francisco in 1792, English Captain 
George Vancduver was permitted to visit Presidio. He found 
it "a square area, whose sides were about 200 yards in 
length, enclosed by a mud wall, and resembling a pound for 
cattle. Above this wall the thatched roofs of their low small 
houses just made their appearance. On entering the Presid- 
io, we found one of its sides still uuinclosed Dy the wall, 
and very indifferently fenced in by a few bushes here and 
there, fastened to stakes in the ground ... It is about 14 
feet high, five in breadth, and was first formed by uprights 
and horizontal rafters of large timber, between which dried 
sods and moistened earth were pressed as close and as hard 
as possible; after which the whole was cased with earth 
made into a sort of mud plaster, which gave it the appear- 
ance of durability . . . Houses were along the wall, within 
the square, and their fronts uniformly extended the same 
distance into the area." He said the church was small, white- 
washed with a lime made from crushed sea shells, and ex- 
tended deeper into the parade ground. He added that the 
Presidio was “totally incapable of making resistance against 
a foreign invasion, its only cannon being a three pounder 
mounted on a carriage that was beginning to fall apart. 
When Vancouver’s visit was discovered by Spanish authori- 
ties, commandant was reprimanded for permitting too close 
an inspection of the place. (Redrawn from plat in Bancroft, 
History of California; north arrow is as shown in Bancroft 
but it actually points west.) 

This “horrid place” had a military history that 
dated back to 1776 when a 63-man expedition of 
Spanish soldiers, priests, and settlers arrived to es- 
tablish a presidio. They brought with them the au- 
thority of Spain, in answer to English and Russian 
overtures from Canada and Alaska. At the same 
time. Father Junipero Serra established a mission 
nearbv, calling it San Francisco de Asis. Later it 
was known as Mission Dolores. 

The primitive palisaded Presidio was not de- 
signed to fend off Indian attacks, because the In- 
dians were considered friendly. As time passed and 
adobe replaced the rough stick and stone construc- 
tion, it became obvious that it was not even de- 
signed to ward off the changeable San Francisco 
weather. Throughout the period of pre-American 
occupation, the Presidio was in a state of continual 
construction. As fast as new adobe would be built 
during the dry season, it would be attacked by the 
rain and atmosphere in the rainy season. Twenty- 
five years after work started, the fourth wall still 
had not been completed. 

Thirty soldiers founded the Presidio. Twenty 
years later, a detachment of 35 more arrived. Pa- 
trols and escorts, plus a guard at the mission, usual- 
ly left the Presidio almost vacant and the small gar- 
rison was unable to cope with the deterioration of 
the post. In 1SOO the magazine was covered by 
drifting sand while a hurricane tore off several 
roofs. By this time, most of the available labor was 
being directed to Fort San Joaquin, on the future 
site of Fort Point at the Golden Gate. 

Isolated from Spain, there was no hesitancy 
about changing allegiance to Mexico when the gar- 
rison heard about independence in 1S22. The Pre- 
sidio continued in operation, but the deterioration 
could not be prevented when the garrison was re- 
duced to seven artillerymen in 1835. A year later, 
all regular troops were recalled. A few retired sol- 
diers and their families remained at the ruined 

The United States moved in with little effort in 

PARALLELOGRAM, 550 yards by 150, was shape of Presidio by 
1870, completely swallowing up original site. Barracks at 
southwestern corner of parade ground was original com- 
mandant’s house. Officers' quarters included 12 31- by 18- 
foot stoiy-and-a-half frame cottages and one threc-story 
frame building, 114 by 32 feet plus a 44- by 30-foot wing, 
that had 39 rooms for bachelor officers. Barracks for 900 
men included nine frame buildings; laundresses and their 
families lived in the adobe barracks. Because of strong 
winds from Colden Cate that blew into front of officers’ 
row, a lattice screen of lath, 12 feet high, was built across 
front of row. Picket fence surrounded entire post on city 
side. (Redrawn from plat in Surceon-Cencral Circular No. 
4. 1870.) 


1846. The decrepit defenses offered no resistance 
when Marines of tire USS Portmouth landed at 
Yerba Buena and raised the American flag. Verba 
Buena soon was renamed San Francisco, and the 
plaza of the flag raising, Portsmouth Plaza. In the 
latter years of a wide open city, the Plaza was to be 
a vice center. 

Above the principal landing, in 1846 the Nave 
placed “a couple of Navy guns,” Sherman remem- 
bered. He said the site was named the Batter)' and. 
from that, the street received its name. Marines 
manned the Presidio at the same time. 

A few months later, a regiment of New York Vol- 
unteers relieved the Marines at the Presidio. Twc 
companies were designated to repair it. Stores and 
ordnance were landed at the city wharf, but the 
heavy guns, mortars, and carriages had to remain at 
the docks for several years because they could not 
be moved across the sand hills. 

An 1854 inspection was critical of the place. "The 
quarters for the soldiers were miserable adoby (sic' 
buildings, the leavings of the Mexican govern- 
ment,” it said, “but were kept in good police and 
order.” A temporary wooden barracks was added 

CALIF. - 1870 


OLDEST BUILDING in San Francisco, this is original Presidio commandant's quarters, now used as Officers’ Club. It 
was built between 1776 and 1778, remodeled in 1850, altered again in 1900, 1912 (when electricity was installed), 
1915, and in 1934 when it was restored to original architecture. Vancouver visited it in 1792, later gave this 
description: “The apartment in the commandant’s house into which we were ushered was about 30 feet long, 
14 feet broad, and 12 feet high; and the other room, or chamber, I judged to be of the same dimensions, excepting 
its length, which appeared to be somewhat less. The floor was of the native soil raised about three feet from its 
original level, without being boarded, paved, or even reduced to an even surface; the roof was covered in flags 
and rushes, the walls on the inside had once been whitewashed; the furniture consisted of a very sparing assort- 
ment of the most indispensable articles, of the rudest fashion, and of the meanest kind; and ill accorded with the 
ideas we had conceived of the sumptuous manner in which the Spaniards live on this side of the globe.” 

With desertions and frequent demands for special 
details, it was difficult to pursue the matter of con- 
struction effectively. 

Devices to minimize desertion included General 
Bennett Rileys shift of his command to Monterey 
where they would be farther from the gold fields. 
The Navy, having lost several crews, took no 
chances when USS Oregon arrived. She was an- 

* O 

chored alongside USS Ohio and her entire crew 
sent aboard as prisoners until ready to sail. 

San Francisco owed her early buildings to crew 
desertions. In 1849, the Presidio saw 549 vessels pass 
by and within the next five years the harbor had 
more tonnage than any other port in tire world. Ir 
1851, desertions had resulted in the abandonment o' 
148 ships in the mud along shore. As these wen 
tightly closed in by sand, they became busines: 
houses and residence. The Apollo became the Apolh 
saloon; the Euphema was bought by the city as : 

FRONT WALL of Commandant's House includes about 75 p< 
cent original construction, but with alterations from 179 
Vancouver description. He said that walls “are a suffitiei 
security against the inclemency of the weather, yet the wir 
dows, which are cut in the front wall, and look into 
scpiare, are destitute of glass, or any other defense that dor 
not at the same time exclude the light'.’’ He suggested th: 
buildings “in winter, or rainy seasons must at the best l 
very uncomfortable dwellings.” 


PRESIDIO in the Seventies matches ground plan. Triple-story bachelor officer quarters is' on right, original Presidio 
building is left of center in picture (behind horse-drawn wood cart). Alcatraz Island is at right edge of picture in 
this view to north-northeast down center of parade. At right of flagpole in background is hospital, dating from 
1854 and still at original site. Post was inspected in 1S66 when it had 1,156 officers and men in 16 companies, 
14 of them preparing for duty in Arizona. Brevet Brigadier C. A. Whittier, the inspector, had few good comments 
to make. He noted regarding drill, "Movements not known to the Regulations of the Army or the approved tactics 
were being continually ordered by the commanding officer. The review so far as it depended upon simultaneous 
movements of all the troops was a failure and would have been discreditable to a first sergeant commanding." He 
found quartermaster records a mess. Condition of post indicated "little or no attention being paid to policing,” 
with no toilet facilities in guardhouse huts occupied by 59 prisoners. The quarters of men being mustered out 
were "very dirt) - ." His recommendation was to remove or reassign post commander who had “almost complete 
lack of knowledge of the fort and who is incompetent.” 

jail and was moored next to the Apollo on the spot 
now occupied by the Federal Bank Building. 

The e.xpansion of the City brought with it squat- 
ters on government lands. Captain Keyes led one 
“expedition” to clear squatters and, though success- 
ful, was brought to court and sued for doing his duty. 
Presidio troopers also were called out to preserve 
law and order in the days of Vigilance movements. 

These problems stepped to the background in 
1861 when a flag of secession was raised for a few 

moments in San Francisco. Doubts about the status 
of General A. S. Johnston were relieved when Gen- 
eral Edwin V. Sumner arrived on April 24, 1S61. “I 
hereby assume command of this department,” he 
proclaimed. “All concerned will govern themselves 

Sumner found 500 troops in San Francisco, 115 at 
the Presidio. He made all three Bay posts indepen- 
dent— Presidio, Point, and Alcatraz— and pushed 
completion of the fortifications. For good measure. 


PRESIDIO TODAY shows changes from 1870 surgeon’s comment: “There are no shade trees in the vicinity.” Barracks 
row, left, is about 100 yards to rear of 1870 row; original Presidio building is in center foreground, on line with 
single tree on parade ground. Alcatraz Island is at right edge of picture. Far shore is partly obscured by perennial 
Bay fog, described in 1866, as providing climate that “can scarcely be called inviting. . . . Her continual rains in 
winter, and cold winds and fogs in summer, must be very trying to average nerves and lungs. ... It did rain 
there sometimes the easiest of any place I ever saw. ... As a rule nobody seemed to mind a perpetual drizzle." 
In 1889, Anson Mills was stationed at Presidio as executive officer, found it "the most enjoyable station we ever 
had. . . . Numerous balls, dances, and other amusements in additional to strenuous duties kept us all busy and 
healthy." A 1935 report said, regarding climate; “There is nothing else but. Never cold, never hot. Always cool. 
Rains are heavy during the winter season.” It found City of San Francisco, "than which there is no better post 
town” which agreed with 1S66 comment that Army officers were no better esteemed or better treated than there. 
Post has been headquarters for Army west of Rocky Mountains continuously since 1S57. 

Page 8S 

OLD STABLES now serve as offices and storehouses. By 1890, frontier version of Presidio had been replaced by this 
permanent brick construction) At this time, post included six artillery batteries, a cavalry troop, and two companies 
of infantry. It could accommodate 39 officers and 562 enlisted men. In 1SS9 it was scene of one of Army’s first 
boards to examine officers for promotion. Thirty-three were tested and “It was a very lively and, I think, an 
efficient board,” commented Anson Mills, a member. Canteen was established at Presidio in 1SS9 when annual 
admission rate for alcoholism was 114.05 per 1,000 men; by 1891 rate had dropped nstoundingly to 8.6S. 

j HOSPITAL BUILDING was built in 1854, is oldest Army con- 
i struction at Presidio. Its brick foundations and pine and 
j hemlock girders were shipped around Horn. Inspection in 
j 1866, although critical of remainder of Presidio, found, 
i “The hospital was in all respects in good condition.” In 
j 1870, surgeon reported hospital was arranged for 50 beds 
j with average occupancy of 17, and the sick list has been 
I mostly composed of venereal diseases contracted in San 
i Francisco.” His statistics showed 141 cases out of mean 
j strength of 319.5 men in 1869. City’s notoriety was men- 
j tioned in U. S. Grant’s Memoirs. In 1853 he found, “Eating, 
drinking and gambling houses were conspicuous for their 
number and publicity. They were on the first floor with 
doors wide open. At all hours of the day and night in walk- 
ing the streets, the eye was regaled, on every block near the 
waterfront, by the sight of players at faro.” In 1854 he no- 
ticed, “Gambling houses had disappeared from public view. 
The city had become staid and orderly.” This was disputed 
i by General Rusling’s 1S66 visit to Barbary Coast. “Here in 
j narrow, noisome alleys are congregated the wretched Clii- 
| nese women, that are imported by the ship-load, mainly for 
| infamous purposes,” he wrote in Across America. “They are 
; not more immodest, than those of our own race, who plv 
j the same vocation in Philadelphia and New York . . . San 
j ..Francisco owes it to hc-rsdf— to obliterate, to stamp out this 
i plague spot.” San Francisco Call had this to say of Barbarv 
I Coast at the time: “That sunk of moral pollution, whose 
i reefs arc strewn with human wrecks, and into whose vortex 
; are constantly drifting barks of moral life, while swiftly' 
j down the whirlpool of death go the sinking hulks of the 
! murderer and suicide . . . The coast where no gentle 
j breezes blow but where rages the sirocco of sin." Reform 
I movement of 1917 ended vice reign in San Francisco. 






15 January 1975 



1. Consists of Two 15-pounder AA guns Model 1917 MI, mounted on 
Pedestal Mounts, Located on left flank of Battery Godfrey. 

2. Guns, 3 Inch, AA, nos 97 and 116 were mounted on mounts nos 86 
and 89 In 1929, dismounted and moved to Ft Funston in November, 1925, per 
7th Ind, Ltr AGO, Washington, D.C., 9/19/25 (AG - 4721.91) 


General Orders, No. 20, War Department, January 25, 1906. Named in 
honor of Colonel Arthur L. Wagner, Military Secretary, United States Army, 
who served with distinction during the war with Spain, and who died 17 June 
1905. Graduated from U.S. Military Academy, 1875. 2nd Lieutenant 6th 
Infantry, 16th June, 1875. 1st Lieutenant, 18th October, 1882. Captain 
2nd April, 1892. Major A.A.G., 17th November, 1896. Lieutenant Colonel 
A.A.G., 26th February, 1898. For several years professor at Infantry and 
.Cavalry School, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Author of "Organization and 
Tactics," "Security and Information" and other military books, Born in 
111 inois. Appointed from Illinois. 

1. Consists of Eight 12" Mortars, Cast Iron, Model 1886, of the Two 
West pits of the Battery of Sixteen Mortars, located about one-half mile to 
the rear of the line of batteries Lancaster-Godfrey. 

12" Mortars, Model 1891 

Serial Nos. Carriages: 34,32,33,31,71,72,46,67. 

Serial Nos. Mortars: 8, 6, 7, 5,40,42,36,43. 

2. Dismounted in 1920. 

3. Remainderof salvageable metals in this emolacement were salvaged 
under authority contained in Secret letter, Services of Supply, 19 Nov 1942, 
file SPX 662 (11-18-42) GB-S-SPDD0, subject; "Proceedings of Local Harbor 
Defense Board, 5 Oct 1942, Salvage of Obsolete Armament." 


i » 

U .-1 


General Orders No. 105, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's 
Office, Washington, Oct. 9th 1902. Named in honor of 2nd Lieutenant 
Henry M. Baldwin, 5th U.S.' Arcil lery,. who died of wounds received at Cedar 
Creek, Virginia, October 19th, 1864. Lieutenant Baldwin was born in 
New Jersey, and appointed from New Jersey. 

1. Consists of Two 15-pounder rapid fire guns. Model 1898, Barbette, 
located on the left flank of Battery Sherwood and about 100 yards away. 
Situated for the defense of the inner harbor. 

15-pounder R.F.G. Ordered removed. 

2. These guns were dismounted in 1920, Ltr WD, 400.702/445, 0 of CO 
May 26, 1920. 

3. Remainder of armament dismantled and salvaged in 1943 under 
authority contained In letter. Services of Supply, 19 Nov 1942 SPX 662 
(12 Nov 42) GB-S. SPDDO, subject; Proceedings of Local Harbor Defense 
Board, 5 Oct 1942, Salvage of Obsolete Armament (Addressed to Chief of 
Ordnance) and copy of Proceedings of subject Board. 

4. This emplacement was turned over to the jurisdiction of the Presidio 
of San Francisco in accordance with an adjustment of the administrative 
boundary between Fort Scott and the Presidio of San Francisco. 


General Orders Mo. 105, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's 
Office, Washington, Oct 9th, 1902. Named in honor of 2nd Lieutenant 
Daniel Blaney, 3rd U.S. Artillery, who was killed on May 5th, 1814 at 
Fort Oswego, New York. 

1. Consists of Four 15-pounder rapid fire guns, Model 1898, Barbette, 
located on the right flank of the fortifications. Situated for the defense 
of the inner harbor. 

15-pounder R.F.G. Ordered removed. 

2. Guns were dismounted in 1920, Ltr WD, 400.702/445, 0 of CO May 26, 1920. 

3. Remainder of armament dismantled and salvaged in 1943 under authority 
contained in letter. Services of Supply, 19 Nov 1942 SPX 662 (12 Nov 42 ) 

GB-S, SPDDO, subject; Proceedings of Local Harbor Defense Board, 5 Oct 1942, 
Salvage of Obsolete Armament (Addressed to Chief of Ordnance) and copy of 
Proceedings of subject Board. 



4. This emplacement was turned over to the jurisdiction of the 
Presidio of San Francisco in accordance with an adjustment of the adminis- 
trative boundary between Fort Scott and the Presidio of San Francisco. 


General Orders No. 105, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's 
Office, Washington, Oct. 9th, 1902. Named in honor of 2nd Lieutenant 
Henry M. Boutelle, 3rd IJ.S. Artillery, who was killed in action near Aliaga, 
Philippine Islands, on November 2nd, 1899, 2nd Lieutenant, 3rd Artillery, 

9th July 1893. Transferred to 14th Infantry, 24th December 1398. Transferred 
to 3rd Artillery 1899. Born in Washington, Appointed from Washington. 

1. Consists of Three 5" rapid fire guns mounted on Pillar mounts 
located on the right flank of Battery Godfrey. 

5“ B.C. Model 1896 (Balanced Pillar) 

Serial Nos. Carriages: 13,14,15. 

2. Guns dismounted in 1920, Ltr WD, 400.702/445, 0 of CO May 26, 1920. 

3. Remainder of armament dismantled and salvaged in 1943 under authority 
contained in letter, Services of Suonlv, 19 Nov 1942 SPX 662 (12 Nov 42) 

GB-S. SPDD0, subject; Proceedings of the Local Harbor Defense Board, 5 Oct 
1942, Sal vage of Obsolete Armament (Addressed to Chief of Ordnance) and 

copy of Proceedings of subject 3oard. 


General Orders No. 194, War Department, Washington, Dec 27, 1894. 
flamed in honor of Captain Lowell A. Chamberlin, 1st U.S. Artillery who 
served with distinction durino the Civil War, and who died August 9th, 

1899. 1st Sergeant, 2nd Independent Cattery Massachusetts Light Artillery, 
5th July 1861. Discharged 11th December 1861. 2nd Lieutenant 1st Maryland 
Light Artillery, 16th December 1861. 1st Lieutenant, 21st January 1863. 
Mustered out 3rd July 1865. 1st Lieutenant 5th U.S. Volunteer, 31st July, 

1865. Mustered out 20th July 1866. 2nd Lieutenant 1st Artillery 11th May 

1866. 1st Lieutenant 23th August 1867. Resigned '17th November, 1873. 
Reinstated 23rd March 1875, (joint resolution 3rd March, 1875.) Captain, 
25th November, 1886. Corn in Massachusetts. Appointed from Massachusetts. 

1. Consists of Four 6" Disappearing quns located near Baker Beach and 
about 1/3 mile to the left of Batterv Crosbv. These ouns and carriages 
were dismounted in 1917 and forwarded to CO; Watervliet Arsenal H.Y. 8 Dec 
1917 per Tel. Authority 110 So.- Pac. C.A.D. 12 Oct 1917. 

6" D.C. Model 1903. - Serial Nos. Carriages 40,41. 




2 . Two 6“ guns. Model 1900, Barbette Carriage, mounted on 8 January 1920. 
Situated for the defense of Mine Field and waters adjacent to Golden Gate. 

3. Harbor Defense Project (HDSF-AN-45) calls for retention of this 

4. Declared surplus bv secret Ltr, Hq, AGF, 602.1/109 (c) (23 May 47) 
GNG0S-1A, 23 May 1948, Subject: "Harbor Defense Installations," to CGs of 
ZI Annies. Dismantling and removal of guns directed by 2d Ind, Hq Sixth 
Army AMORO 400.703/132, 2 Sep 1948 to Ltr, Ch of Ord, 28 May 48, Subject: 
"Ordnance Equipment excess tothe needs of Harbor Defenses of San Francisco," 
to CG AGF. 


General Orders No. 16, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's 
Office, Washington, February 14th 1902. Named in honor of 1st Lieutenant 
Arthur Cranston, 4th U.S. Artillery, who was killed at the Lava Beds, Calif, 
on April 26th 1873, in action against Modoc Indians. Graduated from U.S. 
Military Academy, 4th Artillery, 17th June 1867. 1st Lieutenant 30th 
November 1871. Born in Massachusetts. Appointed from Ohio. 

1. Consists of Two 10" Disappearing guns. Model 1888 M-II, located on 
the left flank of Battery Lancaster and on the sane line. Situated for 
•defense of the Golden Gate and adjacent waters. 

2 . This battery formerly included Battery Marcus Miller. Guns 2,3 and 4 
were separated and named Battery Marcus Miller by GO No. 210 WD 1907. 

3. This battery was salvaged by the Commanding General, Fort Winfield 
Scott and Sub-Pasts, under directive contained in Secret letter. Office of 
Chief of Ordnance, file, 0.0. 400.93/28 (S) SP0FX5, to the Commanding General, 
Ninth Service Command, dated, 23 January 1943, subject; "Salvage of Obsolete 
Armament" with 1 inclosure. 


General Orders No. 16, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's 
Office, Washington, February 14th, 1902. Named in honor of 1st Lieutenant 
Franklin B. Crosby, 4th U.S. Artillery, who was killed in the Battle of 
Chancellorsville, Virginia, on May 3rd, 1863. 2nd Lieutenant, 4th Artillery, 
8th August 1861. 1st Lieutenant 8th August 1861. Born in New York. 

Appointed from New York. 


* *T 

- r* 


1. Consists of Two 6" Disappearing guns, Model 1897, located about 
1/2 mile to the left of Battery Godfrey, towards Baker Beach. Situated for 
the defense of line Fields and waters adjacent to the Golden Gate. 

2. This batterv was salvaged by the Commanding General, Fort Winfield 
Scott and Sub-Posts, under directive contained in Secret letter. Office 

of Chief of Ordnance file 00 400.7/89 (S) SP01P, Redist. and Salvage, to 
the Commanding General, Ninth Service Command, dated, 5 Aug 43, subject; 
"Disposal of Seacoast Batteries, Harbor Defense of San Francisco." 


1. Consists of Two 3” BC, Model 1902 guns located on the top of the 
old brick fort at Fort Point. 

2. These guns were resited from the original batterv. Battery Yates, 
as part of the Anti-Motor Torpedo Boat defense of the Harbor Defenses under 
authority contained in Secret letter. The Adjutant General's Office, 21 Oct 
1942, file, AG 660.2 (2-12-42) MSC-E, to the Commanding General, Western 
Defense Command, subject; "Defense of Harbor Against Motor Torpedo Boats." 

3. Guns dismantled and salvaged under authority of Secret letter TAG, 
27 Nov 1945 file, AG 660.2 (16 Nov 45) 0B-S-E subject; "Elimination and 
replacement of 3- inch Armament in Harbor Defenses." 


General Orders No. 16, Headquarters of the Army .Adjutant General's 
Office, Washington, February 14th, 1902. Named in honor of Captain George 
J. Godfrey, 22nd U.S. Infantry, who was killed in action at Cavite Island 
of Luzon, Philippine Islands, on June 3rd, 1899. Graduated from U.S. Military 
Academy, 1886. 2nd Lieutenant 12th Infantry, 1st July 1886. 1st Lieutenant 
22nd Infantry, 1st February 1893. Captain, 2nd March 1899. Born in New York. 
Appointed from New York. 

1. Consists of Three 12" guns. Model 1888 mounted on Barbette Carriages, 
Located on the left flank of Battery Boutelle, and on the same general line. 
Situated for the defense of the Golden Gate and adjacent waters. 

2. This battery was salvaged by the Commanding General, Fort Winfield 
Scott and Sub-Posts, under directive contained in Secret letter. Office of 
the Chief of Ordnance, file, 0.0. 400.93/28 (S) SP0FX5, to the CG, Ninth 
Service Command, dated, 23 January 1946, subject; "Salvage of Obsolete 
Armament," with 1 inclosure. 




General Orders No. 16, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's 
Office, Washington, February 14, 1902. Named in honor of Colonel Albion P. 
Howe, 4th U.S. Artillery, Brevet Major General, who died on January 4th, 

1897. Graduated from the U.S. Military Academy 1841, 2nd Lieutenant, 4th 
Artillery, 1st July, 1841. 1st Lieutenant, 18 June 1846. Regimental 
Adjutant, 1st October 1846, to March 1855. Brevet Captain, 20th August 1847, 
for gallant and meritorious conduct in the Battles of Contreras and 
Churubusco. Captain, 4th Artillery, 2nd March 1855. Brevet Major, 1st 
July 1862, for gallant meritorious service in the Battle of Malvern Hill, 
Virginia. Brigadier General, Volunteers, 11th June 1862. Brevet Lieutenant 
Colonel, 3rd May 1863, for. gallant and Meritorious service in the Battle of 
Salem Heights, Virginia. Major, 4th Artillery, 11th August 1853. Brevet 
Colonel, 7th Nov 1863, for gallant meritorious service in the Battle of 
Rappahannock Station, Virginia. Brevet Brigadier General and Major General, 
13th March 1865, for gallant and meritorious service during the war. Brevet 
Major General, Volunteers, 13th July 1865, for faithful and meritorious 
service. Mustered out of Volunteer Service, 15th January 1866. Lieutenant 
Colonel, 20th Infantry, 28th July, 1866, declined. Lieutenant Colonel 
2nd Artillery, 10th April, 1879. Colonel 4th Artillery, 1 9th April , 1882. 
Retired 30th June, 1882. Died 25th January, 1897. Born in Maine. Appointed 
from Maine. 

1. Consists of Eight 12" Mortars, Cast Iron, Model 1886 and 1886 Ml, 
forming the two East pits and adjacent to Battery Arthur Wagner. 

2. This armament was dismounted in 1920, Ltr WD, OCO, 400.702/445, 

May 26, 1920. 

12" Mortars, Model 1891. - Serial Nos. Carriages: 22,26,21,23,51, 


Serial No. Mortars: 43^29 138*39 ,47, 


3 . Remainder of salvageable metals in this emplacement were salvaged 
under authority contained in Secret letter. Services of Supply 19 Nov 1942, 
file, SPX 662 (11-18-42) GB-S-SPDDO, subject; “Proceedings of Local Harbor 
Defense Board, 5 Oct 1942, Salvage of Obsolete Armament." 


General Orders, No. 16, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's 
Office, Washington, February 14th, 1902. Named in honor of Lieutenant 
Colonel James M. Lancaster, 3rd U.S. Artillery, who died at Fort Monroe, 
Virginia, on October 5th, 1900. Graduated from U.S. Military Academy, 1862. 

2nd Lieutenant 3rd Artillery, 17th June, 1862. 1st Lieutenant, 24th June, 

1864. Regimental Adjutant, 28th March to 24th September, 1867. Brevet Captain, 
13th March, 1865, for good conduct and gallant service during the w ar. 

Captain 3rd Artillery, 20th March, 1879. Major of Artillery (4th Artillery), 
29th October, 1896. Born in Kentucky. Apointed from Kentucky. 



'1. Consists of Three 12" breech loading guns. Disappearing type. Two 
guns transferred to CO; Watervliet Arsenal, N.Y. 15 May 1918, per letter, 
Confidential, Western Armament, Dist. B.A. #472.35/8 dated, 8 April 1918. 
One gun to Fort Mi ley, Cal ifornia 10 June 1918, per same authority. Ltr AGO 
473.2 (How Misc Div) May 19, 1918. 

12 Inch ordered removed Letter Adjutants Generals Office File 473.2 
(Howitzer Misc. Division) March 19, 1918) 

2. Remainder of salvageable metals in this emplacement were 
salvaged under authority contained in secret letter Services of Supply, 19 
Nov 1942, file, SPX 662 (11-18-42) G8-S-SPDD0, subject; "Proceedings of 
Local Harbor Defense Board,. 5 Oct 1942, Salvage of Obsolete Armament." 


General Orders, No. 20, War Department, January 25, 1906. Named in 
honor of Chaplain William D. McKinnon, 3rd U.S. Cavalry, who served with 
distinction during the war with Spain and the insurrection in the Philippine 
Islands, and who died September 25, 1902. Born in Massachusetts. Appointed 
from California. 

1. Consists of the Four 12" Mortars, Steel, Model 1890M1, (in two nits 
of two mortars each) Battery consists of last two m'ts from right flank. 

All mortar pits in rear of Rob Hill. For defense of Golden Gate and adjacent 
waters. Four mortars. Serial Nos. 22, 23, 28, and 46, transferred to 
Battery Walter Howe, Fort Funston, California, per aporoval by Secretary of 
War, 10 February 1917, of plan oroposed by the Coimanding General, Pac. Coast 
Arty. Dist. under date 12 October 1916. (P.C.A.D. 3133). For defense of 
Golden Gate and adjacent waters. 

2. This battery was salvaged by the CG, Fort Winfield Scott and Sub-Posts, 
under directive contained in Secret letter. Office of the Chief of Ordnance, 
file 00 400.93/28(S) SP0FX5, to the CG, Ninth Service Command, dated 23 
January 1946, subject; "Salvage of Obsolete Armament," with 1 inclosure. 


General Orders, No. 210, War Department, October 11, 1907. In honor of 
Brigadier General Marcus P. Miller, United States Armv, who served with 
distinction during the civil war, in Indian campaigns, and in the Philippine 
insurrection. General Miller was born in Massachusetts and was appointed 
a cadet at the U.S. Military Academy from that state September 1, 1854; 
appointed brevet 2nd Lieutenant, 4th Artillery, July 1, 1858; 2nd Lieutenant, 
September 26, 1859; 1st Lieutenant, May 14, 1861; Captain, May 11, 1C54; 
Major, 5th Artillery, September 14, 1883; Lieutenant Colonel, 1st Artillery, 
October 10, 1894; Colonel, 3rd Artillery, April 30, 1897; Brigadier General 



Volunteers, May 27, 1898; vacated February 23, 1899; appointed Brigadier 
General, United States Army, February 15 , 1899, accepted February 23, 1899. 
Retired from active service March 27, 1899. General Miller was brevetted 
Colonel February 27, 1890, and he died December 29, 1906. 

1. Consists of Three disappearing guns. Model 1888 located on left 
flank of Battery Cranston and formerly a part of that batterv. Separated 

by indorsement on letter of the Artillery District Commander, date of aoproval 
of the separation received at Hq. Arty. Dist. of S.F. 30 Sept 1907. Named 
by GO No. 210, WD 1907. Situated for the defense of Golden Gate and adjacent 

.10" D.C. Model 1894MI 

Serial Nos. Carriages: 27,24,34. 

2. Armament dismounted in 1920. 

3. Remainder of salvageable materials were salvaged under authority 
contained in Secret letter. Services of Supply, 19 Nov 1942, file SPX 662 
(11/18/42) GB-S-SPDDO, subject; "Proceedings of Local Harbor Defense Board, 

5 Oct 1942, Salvage of Obsolete Armament." 


— •*“ 

1. Consists of Two 3" BC M 1902 guns, located on the top of the old 
brick fort at Fort Point. 

2. These guns were resited from the original battery. Battery Yates, 
as part of the -Anti-Motor Torpedo Boat defense of the Harbor Defenses under 
authority contained in Secret letter. The Adjutant General's Office, 21 Feb 
1942, file, AG 660.2 (2-12-42) MSC-E, to the Commanding General, Western 
Defense Command, subject; "Defense of Harbors against Motor Torpedo Boats." 

3. Guns dismantled and salvaged under authority of Secret letter TAG, 
27 Nov 1945 file, AG 660.2 (16 Nov 1945) OB-S-E. subject; "Elimination and 
replacement of 3-inch Armament in Harbor Defenses." 


General orders. No. 16, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's 
Office, Washington, February 14th, 1902. Named in honor or Captain Marion M. 
Saffold, 13th U.S. Infantry, who was killed in action at Cavite, Island of 
Luzon, Philippine Islands, on October 8th, 1899. Graduated from US Military 



Academy, 1879. 2nd Lieutenant 13th Infantry, 13th June, 1879. 1st 
Lieutenant 16th December, 1889. Regimental Quarters Master, 16th December 
1809, to 1893. Captain, 26th April, 1898. Killed in action at Cavite Viego, 
Luzon, Philippine Islands, 8th October, 1899. Born in Alabama. Appointed 
from Alabama. 

1. Consists of Two 12" guns. Model 1888 Mil, mounted on Barbette 
Carriages, located on the left and rear of Anti-Aircraft Battery. Situated 
for the defense of the Golden Gate and adjacent waters. 

2 . This battery was salvaged by the Commanding General, Fort Winfield 
Scott and Sub-Posts, under directive contained in Secret letter. Office of 
the Chief of Ordnance, file, 00 400.93/28 (S) SP0FX5, to the CG Ninth Service 
Command, dated 23 January 1946, subject; “Salvage of Obsolete Armament," with 

1 inclosure. 


General Orders, No. 16, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's 
Office, February 14th, 1902. Named in honor of 2nd Lieutenant Walter 
Sherwood, 7th U.S. Infantry, who was killed in a hand-to-hand encounter 
with Seminole Indians, near Fort Mi canopy, Florida, on December 28th, 1840. 
Graduated from U.S. Military Academy, 1837. Born in New Jersey. Appointed 
from New Jersey. 

1. Consists of Two 5" guns, transferred to Battery Bruff, Fort Funston, 
Calif. May 1917 per approval by Secretary of War 10 Feb 1917, of plan 
Proposed by the CG Pac, Coast Arty. Dist. under date 12 Oct 1916 (PCAD 3133) 
Battery Bruff since dismounted. 

2 . This emplacement has been turned over to the jurisdiction of the 
Presidio of San Francisco in accordance with an adjustment of the administrative 
boundary between Fort Scott and the Presidio of San Francisco. 


General Orders, No. 16, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's 
Office, February 14th, 1902. Named in honor of 1st Lieutenant William A. 
Slaughter, 4th U.S. Infantry, who was killed at Brannons Prairie, Washington 
Territory, on December 4th, 1855, in action against White River Indians. 
Graduated from U.S. Military Academy 1848, Brevet 2nd Lieutenant 2nd Infantry, 
1st July 1848, 2nd Lieutenant 4th Infantry, 6th November, 1848. 1st Lieutenant 
22nd June, 1854. Born in Kentucky. Appointed from Indiana. 




1. Consists of Three 8" disappearing guns, Model 1888 shipped to C.O. 
Watervliet, N.Y. 26 Nov 1917, per Tel. So. Pac. CAD dated 12 Oct 1917. 

2. This emplacement has been turned over to the jurisdiction of the 
Presidio of San Francisco in accordance with an adjustment of the administrative 
boundary between Fort Scott and the Presidio of San Francisco. 


General Orders, No. 16, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's 
Office, February 14th, 1902. Named in honor of Captain John M. Stotensburg, 

6th U.S. Cavalry, formerly Colonel of the 1st Nebraska Volunteer Infantry, 
who was killed in action at Quingua, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on April 
23rd, 1899. Graduated from U.S. Military Academy, 1881. 2nd Lieutenant 
6th Cavalry, 11th June, 1881. 1st Lieutenant 19th August 1889. Captain 14th 
December, 1898. Graduate of the Infantry and Cavalry School, 1897. Major 1st 
Nebraska Volunteers, 9th May, 1898. Born in Indiana. Appointed from Indiana. 

1. Consists of Eight 12" Mortars, Steel, Model 1890 MI (in two pits of 
four mortars each). Battery consists of first two pits from right flank 

in rear of Rat Hill. Situated for defense of Golden Gate and adjacent waters. 

2. This battery v/as salvaged by the CG. Fort Winfield Scott and Sub-Posts, 
under directive contained in Secret letter. Office of the Chief of Ordnance, 
file, 00 400.93/28 (S) SP0FX5, to the CG, Ninth Service Command, dated 23 
January 1946, subject; “Salvage of Obsolete Armament," with 1 inclosure. 





of the 

THE SPANISH PERIOD: 1776 - 1822 

Lt Jose Joaquin Moraga 

17 Sep 1776—13 Jul 1785 
Lt Diego Gonzales 

13 Jul 1785 — h Feb 1787 
Alferez Hermengildo Sal 

11 Feb 1787—12 Jun 1787 
Lt Jose Dario Arguello 

12 Jun 1787—2 Aug 1806 

Alferez Hermengildo Sal (acting) 
1791—1791;,* 1795—1796 
Alferez Jose Perez Farandez (acting) 
17 9U— 1795 

Lt Col Pedro de ^lberni (acting) 

Capt Luis Antonio Arguello 
7 Aug 1806—25 Apr 1822 

THE MEXICAN PERIOD: 1822— 181;6 

Capt Luis Antonio Arguello 
25 Apr 1822—27 Mar 1830 
Lt Ignacio Martinez (acting) 
1822—1827J 1828— 1830 
Alferez Jose Antonio Sanches (acting) 
1829—18305 1830—1831 
Lt Ignacio Martinez 

2? Mar 1830— Sep 1831 
Lt Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo 
Sep 1831—1833 


Alferez Damasio Rodriques (acting) 

Alferez Juan Prado Mesa (acting) 

1835 s 1839 s 18U1— 18U3 

Capt Francisco Sanchez (acting) 
1838—1839,* I8I4I— 18U6 

Sergeant Santiago Hernandez (caretaker) 


Corporal Joaquin Pena (caretaker) 


>: 1814—1976 

Maj Janes A. Hardie, 1st N.Y. Vol. 

(Lt, 3d Arty) Mar 182*7 — Nov 182;9 
Capt Erasmus D. Keyes, 3d Arty 
Nov 18)48—6 Nov 1855 
Capt Edward O.C. Ord, 3d Arty 
1 Mar 1856—16 Mar 1856 
Lt Horatio G, Gibson, 3d Arty 
6 Mar 1856 — 16 Apr 1856 
Capt Edward O.C. Ord, 3d Arty 
16 Apr 1856—21 Oct 1356 
Capt Erasmus D. Keyes, 3d Arty 
21 Oct 1856—21; Jun 1858 . 

Capt John H. Lendrum, 3d Arty 
2U Jun 1858—3 Dec 1858 
Lt Col George Andrews, 6th Inf 
3 Dec 1858—1 Jan 1859 
Bvt Kaj Lewis Armistead (Capt, 6th Inf) 

1 Jan 1859—9 Feb 1859 
Lt Horatio G. Gibson, 3d Arty 
9 Feb 1859—19 May 1859 
Bvt Lt Col- William Hoffman (Maj, 6th Inf) 
19 May 1859—29 Jun 1859 


Lt Horatio Gibson, 3d Arty 
30 Jun 1859—2 Jul 1859 
Lt Col Charles S. Merchant, 3d Arty 
2 Jul 1859—5 May i860 
Lt John Hamilton, 3d Arty 
5 May 1860—3 Jul i860 
Brt Lt Col Georee Naum an (Maj, 3d Arty) 
it July 1860—1? Dec i860 
Lt Col Charles S. Merchant, 3d Arty 
17 Dec 1860—27 Nor 1861 
Capt Frederick T. Dent, 9th Inf 
27 Nor 1861—29 Dec 1861 
Maj G.W. Patten, 9th Inf 
30 Dec 1861—20 Jan 1862 
Lt Col C.C. Sibley, 9th Inf 
21 Jan 1862—7 Sep 1863 
Maj Andrew W, Bowman, 9th Inf 
7 Sep 1861—1 Nor 1863 
Capt P.A. Owen, 9th Inf 

2 Nor 1863—2 Dec 1863 
1st Lt Id win Pollock, 9th Inf 

3 J ec 1863— 21* Jan 186U 
Lt Col C.C. Sibley, 9th Inf 

25 . Jan l86it — 16 Oct l86it 
Col Thomas F. bright, 2d Cal Vol 
17 Oct 186U— 19 Aug 1865 
Lt Col Robert Pollack, 2d Inf Cal Vol 
19 Aug 1865—26 Aug 1865 
Capt W.E, Aopleton, 9th Inf 

27 Aug 1865 — 16 s e p 1865 

Maj Louis H. Marshall, liith Inf 

17 Sep 1865—25 °ep 1365 
Brt Maj Gen W.H. French (Lt Col, 2d *rty) 

26 Sep 1865—27 Oct 1865 
Maj JoseDh Updeeraff, 9th Inf 

28 Oct 1865—15 Dec 1865 • 

Bvt Brig Gen H.D. Wallen (Lt Col, litth Inf) 

16 Dec 1865—8 Jan 1866 
Maj Harvey A. Allen, 2d "rty 

9 Jan 1866 — 23 Jan 1866 
Brt Col Albert G. Brackett (Maj, 1st Car) 
2it Jan 1866 — 16 Feb 1866 
Maj Harrey A. Allen, 2d Arty 

17 Feb 1866—12 Feb 1867 

Bvt Maj Gen W.H. French (Lt Col, 2d Arty) 
13 Feb 1867—20 0 c t 1867 
Brt Col Edward R. Williston (Capt, 2d "rty) 
21 Oct 1667—26 Hov 1867 
Brt Maj James S. Dudley (1st Lt, 2d Arty) 

27 Nor 1867—3 Feb 1868 
Capt Joseph G. Ramsay, 2d Arty 

it Feb 1863—1 May 1868 

Bvt Maj James S. Dudley (1st Lt, 2d Arty) 
2 May 1868—25 May 1868 
Bvt Col C.M. Pennington (Caot, 2d Arty) 

2? Kay 1868—23 Jun 1868 ‘ 

Brt Maj James S. Dudley (1st Lt, 2d Arty) 
2 it Jun 1868— lit A ug 1868 
Bvt Col A. C.M. Pennington (Capt, 2d Arty) 
15 Aug 1868—13 Jun 1869 
Brt Maj Gen W.H. French (Lt Col, 2d Arty) 
lit Jun 1869—12 Nor 1872 
Col Horace Brooks, itth Arty 
12 Nor 1872—20 Jan 1877 
Capt Edwin V . Sumner, 1st Oar 
21 Jan 1877—25 Jan 1877 
Capt Henry C. Hasbrouck 
26 Jan 1877—30 Jan 18?? 

Capt Edwin V. Sumner, 1st Car 
31 Jan 1877—5 Mar 18?7 
Col Joseph Roberts, Itth Arty 

6 Mar 1877—3 Jul 1877 

Capt Harry C. Cushing, itth Arty 
it Jul 1877—13 Jul 1877 
1st Lt J.M. Roden, itth *rty 
-lit Jul 1877—25 Jul 1877 
Capt William E. Dove, 12th Inf 

26 Jul 1877—15 Aug 1877 

Capt Henry C. Hasbrouck, itth "rty 
18 Aug 1877—31 Aug 1877 
Maj Albion P. Howe, itth -*rty 
1 Sep 1877—8 D e c 1877 
Brt Maj W.H . French (Lt Col, 2d Arty) 

9 Dec 1877—27 Jan 1878 
1st Lt William Ennis, itth Arty 

28 Jun 1878—26 Aug 1878 

Capt Henry 0. Hasbrouck, itth Arty 

27 Aug 1878—1 Mar 1879 
Capt George B, Rodney, itth -“rty 

7 Apr 1879—11 May 1879 

Brt Maj W.H. French (Lt Col, 2d Arty) 

1 Mar 1880—18 May 1880 
Capt Henry C, Hasbrouck, itth "rty 
18 May 1880—25 May 1830 
Maj LaRhett L, Livingston, itth Arty 
25 May 1880—28 -*ug 1880 
Capt Henry 0, Hasbrouck, itth .arty 

29 ^g 1880—18 °ep 1880 

Maj LaRhett L. Livingston, itth Arty 
18 Sep 1880—27 Sep 1860 
Lt Col George P. Andrews, itth Arty 
2? Sep 1850—22 L ec 1880 
Brt Maj Gen Eaory Upton (Col, itth Arty) 
23 Dec 1880—3 Apr 1881 


Lt Col George P. Andrews, l*th Arty 
1* Apr 1881—22 Feb 1885 
Lt Col Alexander PiDer, 1st Arty 
23 Feb 1835—23 Aug 1887 
Kaj Frank T. Bennett, 2d Cav • 

21* Aug 1887—31 Aug 1887 
Maj J. Rogers, 1st Arty 
1 Sep 1887—30 Sep 1887 
Lt Col William M. Graham, 1st Arty 

I Oct 1887—20 liar 1889 

Col Loomis L. Langdon, 1st Arty 
21 Mar 188?— 7 May 1890 
Lt Col Charles G. Bartlett, 1st Inf 

8 May 1890— ll* May 1890 

Col William M. Graham, 5th Arty 
15 May I89O—IO Jul 1891* 

Capt David H. Kinzie, 5th Arty 

II Jul I89U — 21* Jul 1392* 

Maj Thomas A, Darling, 5th Arty 

25 Jul 1891*— 8 Aug 1891* 

Capt David H. Kinzie, 5th Arty 

9 Aug 1891;— 31 Aug I89I* 

Lt Col S.B.M. Xoune, iith Cav 

I Sep 1891*— 3 Sep 1891* 

Col William H. Graham, 5th Arty 
1* Sep 1891*— 19 Oct 1896 
Lt Col E.B, Williston, 3d Arty 

20 Oct - 1896— 20 Nov 1896 
Col William R. Shafter, 1st Inf 

21 Nov 1896—21* Mar 1897 
Lt Col S.B.M. Xoung, i*th Cav 

25 Mar 1897—10 May 1897 
Lt Col E.B. Williston, 3d Arty 

II May 1897—17 May 1897 
Lt Col Evans Miles, 1st Inf 

18 May 1897—19 Apr I89S 
Lt Col L.T. Morris, i*th Cav 

20 Apr 1898—20 Jul 1898 

. Brig Gen Marcus P. Miller, DS Vols 

21 Jul 1898—31 Oct 1898 
Maj David H. Kinzie, 3d Arty 

1 Nov 1898—1* Nov 1398 
Lt Col Henry Wagner, 2*th Cav 
5 Nov 1898—6 Jan 1699 
Col Charles E. Compton, ijth Cav 

7 Jan 1899—7 Apr 1899 

Col Henry B. Freeman, 2l*th Inf 

8 Apr 1899— 28 Apr 1899 

Col Charles E. C c moton, l*th Cav 
29 Apr 1899—31 May 1899 
Col Henry B. Freeman, 2ljth Inf 
1 Jun 1899— 8 Jan 1900 
Maj Calvin D. Cowles, 17th Inf 

9 Jan 1900—13 Jan 1900 

Lt Col Richard I. Eskridge, 22d Inf 

19 Jan 1900—30 Apr 1900 
Col Jacob B. Rawles, 3<i Arty 

1 May 1900—15 Apr 1903 

Lt Col George S # Grimes, Arty 

16 Apr 1903—20 May 1903 
Maj Charles W. Hobbs, Arty 

21 May 1903—1 Jun 1903 
Col George B. Rodney, Arty 

2 Jun 1903—5 Aug 1903 
Maj Charles W. Hobbs, Arty 

5 Aug 1903—16 Sep 1903 
Maj Albert Todd, Arty 

17 Sep 1903—10 Oct 1903 
Col Charles Morris, Arty 

11 Oct 1903—2 Dec 1906 
Col John A. Lundeen, Arty 

3 Dec 1906—18 Jul 1910 
Col Clarence Deems, CAC 

18 Jul 1910—17 Sep 1910 
Col John A. Lundeen, Arty 

18 Sep 1910—1 Feb 1911 
Col John P. Wisser, CAC 

2 Feb 1911—19 Jun 1912 

Col Edward J. McClernand, 1st Cav 

20 Jun 1912—2 Jul 1912 
Col Walter L. Finley, 1st Cav 

3 Jul 1912—9 Jul 1912 

Col Cornelius Gardener, 16th Inf 

10 Jul 1912—1 Jan 1913 
Col Walter L. Finley, 1st Cav 

2 Jan 1913—30 Jan 1913 
Col Cornelius Gardener, 16th Inf 
31 Jan 1913— 1* May 1913 
Col Walter L. Finley, 1st Cav 
5 May 1913—25 Jun 1913 
Col George Bell, Jr., 16th Inf 
26 Jun 1913—17 Jul 1913 
Col Walter L. Finley, 1st Cav 
18 Jul 1913—10 Deo 1913 
Col William II. Bowen, 12th Inf 

11 Dec 1913—9 Jan 191 1* 

Col George Bell, Jr., 16th Inf 

10 Jan 1911*— 15 Jan 19U* 

Col Lee Febiger, 6th Inf 
16 Jan 1911*— 27 Jan 1911* 

Col George Bell, Jr., 16th Inf 

28 Jan 1911*— 23 Apr 1911* 

Col Richmond P, Davis CAC 

2k Apr 1911*— 30 Jun 19U* 

Lt Col John P. Hains, CAC 
1 Jul 1911*— 28 Jul 1911* 

Col Frank B. McCoy, 30th Inf 

29 Jul 1911*— 23 Dec 1911* 


Lt Col Alfred H. Hunter, CAC 
21 * Dec 1911*— 3 Jan 1915 
Maj Henry H. Witney, CAC 
U Jan 1915—26 Feb 1915 
Lt Col F.G. Mauldin, CAC 
27 Feb 1915—5 Jul 1915 
Maj Henry H. Whitney, CAC 

6 Jul 1915—12 Oct 1915 

Col Charles W. Penrose, 2i*th Inf 
13 Oct 1915—22 Jan 1916 
Maj Viliam Newman, 2i*.th Inf 
23 Jan 1916—15 Feb 1916 
Col Charles W„ Penrose, 2Uth Inf 
16 Feb 1916—25 Feb 1916 
Maj Sam F. Bottoms, CAC 
26 Feb 1916—29 Feb 1916 
Maj Joseph Wheeler, Jr., CAC 
1 Mar 1916—8 Jul 1916 
Lt Col Henry H. Whitney, CAC 
9 Jul 1916—8 Aug 1916 
Maj Joseph Wheeler, Jr., CAC 
9 Aug 1916—13 Feb 1917 
Capt Jairus A. Moore, CAC 
19 Feb 1917—20 Feb 1917 
Maj Laurence C, Brown, CAC 
21 Feb 1917—11 Apr 1917 
Lt Col Fred W. Sladen, 21st Inf 
12 Apr 1917—18 Jun 1917 
Maj Laurence C. Brown, CAC 
19 Jun 1917— 1U Jul 1917 
Maj Harry P. Wilbur, CAC 

15 Jul 1917—6 Aug 1917 
Maj Louis S. Chappelear, CAC 

7 Aug 1917—20 Aug 1917 
Maj Richard K, Cravens, CAC 

21 Aug 1917—6 Sep 1917 
Maj James R. Pourie, CAC 

7 Sep 1917—2 Get 1917 

Maj George W. Wallace, loth Inf 
3 Oct 1917— 11 Nov 1917 
Brig Gen Edward J. McClernand 
12 Nov 1917—22 Feb 1919 
Col Benjamin B. Hyer, With Inf 
23 Feb 1919—25 Feb 191 9 
Brig Gen Frank B. Watson 
26 Feb 1919—8 Apr 1919 
Col William K. Jones, With Inf 

8 Apr 1919—15 Apr 1919 

Lt Col Charles S. Hamilton, With Inf 

16 Apr 1919—21 Apr 1919 

Brig Gen John B. McDonald 
22 Apr 1919—21 Sep 1919 
Brig Gen Richard M. Blatchford 
22 Sep 1919—20 Sep 1920 
Col Thomas A. Pearce, 19th Inf 

21 Sep 1920—30 Oct 1921 
Brig Gen Chase W. Kennedy 

31 Oct 1921—31 Aug 1922 
Col Thomas A. Pearce, 30th Inf 
1 Sep 1922—2 Sep 1923 
Lt Col Benjamin H. Pope, 30th Inf 
3 Sep 1923 — k Sep 1923 
Col Charles S. Lincoln, 30th Inf 
5 Sep 1923—9 Sep 1925 
Lt Col Harold D. Coburn, 30th Inf 

10 Sep 1925—30 Oct 1925 
Col 'Frank G. Belles, 30th Inf 

31 Oct 1925—6 Mar 1928 
Lt Col Walter H. Johnson, 30th Inf 
7 Mar 1928—6 Jun 1928 
Col Fred R. Brown, 30th Inf 
7 Jun 1928—25 Jan 1931 
Col Charles B. Stone, Jr., 30th Inf 
26 Jan 1931—31 Jul 1933 
Col Douglas Potts, 30th Inf 
1 *ug 1933—11 Aug 1935 
Col Irving J. Phillipson, 30th Inf 

11 Aug 1935—30 Jun 1938 

Col Robert L. Eichelberger, 30th Inf 
16 Jan 1938— Oct 19U0 
Lt Col Charles H. Corlett, 30th Inf 
Oct 191*0—23 Feb 19Wl 
Col George Munteanu, Inf 

22 Feb 191*1—3 Aug 19 W* 

Col Harold H. Galliett, Inf 

3 Aug 19W* — 11 Jun 191*6 

From 11 June 19U6 to 12 March 1957 the 
Commanding General, Sixth Army, also 
commanded the Presidio of San 

General Joseph W. Stilwell 
11 Jun 191*6—12 Oct 19U6 

Col Harold H. Galliett, Inf, BrC 
11 Jun 191*6—1 Oct 191*6 
Col George V/. Sliney, FA, DFC 
1 Oct 191*6—11 Aug 191*7 

From 11 Jun 1*6 to 12 Mar 57, the Commanding General, Sixth US Army, also 
commanded the Presidio of San Francisco. 

Commanding Generals, Sixth US Army 

Major General George P. Hays 

28 Sep 1*6 

General Mark W. Clark 

Brig Gen J.R.N. Weaver, DPC 

Col Peter <J. Lloyd, DPC 

Col Charles S. D'Orsa, DPC 

Col Paul R. Goode, DPC 

19 Jun 1*7 

11 Aug 1*7 
28 May 1*8 

12 Jan 1*9 
11 Mar 1*9 

Lt Gen Albert C. Wederaeyer 

Col Ivan D. Y e aton, DPC 

Col Orion L. Davidson, DPC 

22 Oct 1*9 
2 Dec 1*9 
1 Feb 51 

Lt Gen Joseph M. Swing 

Col Peter J. Lloyd, DPC 

Col Duncan S. Somerville, DPC 

1 Aug 51 

2 Apr 52 
H* Apr 53 

Lt Gen Willard G. Wyman 

Col Sanford J. Goodman, DPC 

Col William F. Magill, Jr-, DPC 

Col Carl E. -Lundquist, DPC 

* - 

1 Mar 51* 
17 Jun 51* 
29 Jul 5U 

2 Sep 51* 

Lt Gen Robert N. Young 

1 Jul 55 

Lt Gen Lemuel Mathewson 

1 Oct 57 

Kaj Gen Robert L. Howze, Jr. 

5 Jan 58 

Lt Gen Charles D. Palmer 

17 Mar 58 

Lt Gen Robert M. Cannon 

1 Sep 59 

Lt Gen John L. Ryan, Jr. 

1 Sep 61 

Lt Gen Frederic J. Brown 

1 Aug 63 

Lt Gen James L. Richardson, Jr. 

1 Aug 65 

Lt Gen Ben Harrell 

6 Jul 67 

Lt Gen Stanley R. Larsen 

22 Jul 68 

Lt Gen A.D, Surles, Jr. 

15 Jul 71 


Col Carl D. Lundquist 
Col Charles G. Rau 
Col Frank G. Ratliff 
Col Marian M. Brown 
Col W.S. McElheny 
Col Robert W. Clirehugh 
Col John P. Conners 
Col Robert E. McMahon 
Col Claire S. Curtis 
Col Guy 0. DeYoung, Jr. 

■ Col John L. Fellows, Jr 
Col John H. Fye, III 
Col Robert V. Kane 
Col John D. Cunnin^iam 
Col Warren J. Lodge 



























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